Tag Archives: Collocations

What we mean by collocation

Broad vs. narrow definition: In the study of collocations, there have been many suggestions on how the term "collocation" should be defined. In general, we can differentiate between broad(er) and narrow(er) definitions. The broad definitions are primarily geared toward quantitative and statistical analysis and are most commonly found in fields such as computer linguistics or corpus linguistics. They see a collocation as the simple co-occurrence of words within a corpus, regardless of the semantic value of these combinations. The narrow definition, which is geared towards qualitative and semantic research, sees collocations as specific types of phrases that fall somewhere between free word combinations on the one side and idiomatic expressions (e.g. fixed idioms) on the other. Collocations are thus neither "freely" combinable, nor fully idiomaticized. This is why they are often referred to as "semi-fixed".

Collocation structure “base + collocator”: According to the narrow, semantic definition, collocations are hierarchically organized, binary word combinations that are made up of two parts: the so-called base and the so-called collocator. The base is hierarchically higher than the collocator (in other words, the choice of collocator is always dependent on the base). The base word is usually used in its literal sense, while the meaning of the collocator within the collocation can be different from the word's basic or literal meaning. The collocator is thus the "unpredictable" half of the pair, the part that may differ from language to language, and the part that foreign language learners often don't know, get wrong or have to look up. For instance, in the collocations piantare un chiodo (‘hammer/drive [lit. “plant”] a nail into a wall’), la lezione salta (‘the lesson is cancelled [lit. “jumps”]’), and un CD/DVD vergine (‘a blank [lit. “virginal”] CD/DVD’), the nouns chiodo, lezione and CD/DVD are the bases, and the verbs piantare and saltare and the adjective vergine are the collocators.

Types of collocations based on morpho-syntactical aspects:

  1. Noun (subject) + verb: la fiamma / la luce tremola / vacilla ‘the flame / the light flickers’, lo stomaco brontola ‘the stomach growls’, il tempo stringe ‘time is short / time's a-wasting / time is of the essence’
  2. Verb + noun (direct object): appuntire una matita ‘sharpen a pencil’, battere un record ‘break a record’, ingannare la fiducia (di qcn.) ‘abuse (someone's) trust’; stretched verb construction: dare un’occhiata (a qcs. / qcn.) ‘to have / take a look (at someone or sth.) / to keep an eye on sth.’, fare naufragio ‘to be shipwrecked’
  3. Verb + prepositional phrase: fumare / ribollire di rabbia ‘to be very angry / boiling mad’, morire / scoppiare di curiosità ‘to be dying of curiosity’; stretched verb construction: andare a fuoco ‘to burn / to catch fire’, mettere (qcs.) in moto ‘to put (sth.) in motion / to start e.g. a car’
  4. Verb + adverb / prepositional phrase (in the function of a modal adverb): ancorare saldamentefirmly anchor’, fallire miseramente ‘fail miserably’, pentirsi amaramente (di qcs.) ‘to regret (sth.) terribly / bitterly’
  5. Noun + adjective / prepositional phrase (in the function of an attribute): un argomento delicato / spinoso ‘a delicate topic / subject’, una sfacciataggine inaudita ‘colossal cheek / impudence’, uno scherzo da prete ‘a bad joke’
  6. Adjective / participle + adverb / prepositional phrase (in the function of an attribute): perdutamente innamorato ‘to be deeply / madly / head-over-heels in love’, ubriaco fradicio ‘dead drunk / drunk as a skunk’, nuovo di zecca / fiammante ‘brand (spanking) new’

Types of collocations based on semantic aspects:

  1. Collocations with a semantically very specific collocator that has a very large intension and a very restricted collocational range: il sole tramonta ‘the sun sets’, digrignare i denti ‘to bear one's teeth’, un naso camuso ‘a flat nose’
  2. Collocations with a polysemous collocator which, within the collocation, has taken on a different/modified meaning from its basic or literal meaning (usually in some metaphorical sense): la collera sbollisce / svanisce ‘the anger vanishes’, nutrire speranza ‘to entertain hopes’, una fiducia cieca ‘blind trust’
  3. Collocations with a semantically empty or vague collocator that has a very small intension and a very large collocational range (often a stretched verb construction): prendere una decisione ‘to make a decision’, mettere (qcs.) in rilievo ‘to emphasize sth. / to put in relief’, porre un freno (a qcs. / qcn.) ‘to put the brakes on sth./sb. / to rein sb. in’
  4. Elliptical collocations (rare): il cellulare non prende ‘the mobile phone has no signal’ (lit. “the phone won't take”), il rubinetto perde ‘the faucet / tap is leaky / dripping’ (lit. “is losing”; in this example the direct object acqua ‘water’ is omitted, giving the combination collocation status)
  5. Collocations bordering on free word combinations: these combinations only allow certain collocators while others (which should theoretically be possible) are not allowed or sound very odd: occhi storti ‘cross-eyed’ (not possible: ?occhi obliqui), levare / cavare / estirpare / estrarre / strappare / togliere un dente ‘too pull a tooth’ (not possible: ?tirare un dente)

Exceptions - semi-idiomatic collocations: Semi-idiomatic or partially idiomatic collocations have an idiomaticized collocator, as is the case in un numero verde ‘a (toll)free [lit. “green”] (phone) number’. However, since the base is not used idiomatically (numero = ‘(phone) number’), this type of lexical combination is only partially idiomatic, and thus cannot be considered a full idiom; it is still a collocation because at least one part of the combination is used in its literal sense and the overall meaning can still be derived from the meanings of its parts. Some semi-idioms show an “unusual collocational syntax”, as is the case with divertirsi un mondo (‘to be highly diverted / to have a wonderful time’, lit. “to be a world amused”). In this case, divertirsi is the base because it is the part that can be understood literally, while the modal adverb un mondo is an idiomatically used collocator.

Exceptions - compound words: Certain lexical combinations that are made up of a noun + adjective or prepositional phrase are rendered as compounds (i.e. a word made up of several individual words) in German; e.g. tetto apribile (‘sun roof, sliding roof, retractable roof’) = German Schiebedach / Hebedach. This is mostly the case when a word designates a specific type or subclass of something (tetto apribile = type / subclass of tetto). From a learner’s perspective, there is a collocation-like relationship between the parts of this combination (tetto can be identified as a base, while apribile can be seen as a kind of “unpredictable” collocator that is specific to each individual language). Phrases such as vicolo ciecodead end’ (lit. “blind street”), letto a castello (‘bunk bed’, lit. “castle bed”) and foresta vergine ‘primeval forest / jungle’ (lit. “virginal forest”) must be learned in the same manner as collocations. Therefore, this type of lexical combination will also be included in our learner's dictionary.

Project description

‘Limping’ chairs, ‘dancing’ teeth and ‘lost’ busses.
Compiling a learner's dictionary of the most important collocations in Italian for German-speaking learners of Italian as an L2.

Project aims: This project is funded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen - South Tyrol (Division for the Promotion of Education, Universities and Research) and is carried out at the University of Innsbruck, Department of Romance Languages by Dr. Christine Konecny (project head) and Mag. Erica Autelli. The aim of the project is to compile and examine Italian collocations in comparison with their German-language equivalents. The lemmata used to search for collocations will initially be limited to some 900-1100 noun bases. The collocations are collected in a database and will be published in book form as a learner’s dictionary in 2017.

Theoretical background: The research project is based in large parts on the research and results of Christine Konecny's doctoral dissertation, which was published in 2010 by Martin Meidenbauer (Munich) and has received several prizes, including the prestigeous "Premio Giovanni Nencioni 2012” from the Accademia della Crusca and the "Preis der Landeshauptstadt Innsbruck für wissenschaftliche Forschung an der Universität Innsbruck 2008”. Over the past few years, the team members have given numerous talks and published various articles (see "Publications”). To find out more about the conception of collocation in this project, see "What we mean by collocation”.

Method: The 900-1100 noun bases we will use in our search for collocations are taken from the Italian basic vocabulary (vocabolario fondamentale) as found in the Dizionario di base della lingua italiana (DIB) by Tullio De Mauro and Gian Giuseppe Moroni (1996). 200 of these 1100 nouns can also be classed as other word types (e.g. they are both a noun and an adjective). In order to make our list of collocations as comprehensive as possible, we will be using three different methods: (1) consulting different existent monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, (2) introspection on the part of the team members (who are native speakers of German or Italian) and (3) consulting suitable linguistic corpora.

Use of illustrations: In order to bring certain collocations to life and make them easier to memorize, we intend to use graphic illustrations. Many of these drawings already exist; they were produced by children and young adults during various public relations events such as “Aktionstage Junge Uni” (Youth University Day) and the Long Night of Research, and in cooperation with several schools in Tyrol (students age 9-18).

Innovative potential: In the fields of language studies and didactics, many disciplines such as French, English and Spanish studies have long recognized the central importance of collocations, and combinatory and collocational dictionaries for these languages already exist. This is not the case in Italian lexicography and didactics, where interest in the phenomenon of collocations is a very recent development. While several general collections of Italian idioms and figures of speech do exist (they contain some collocations alongside other types of word combinations), there is as of yet no publication geared towards language learners that is based on a comparison between Italian and German. Our project will therefore fill a large gap in Italian language research, and is also an innovative first in the fields of lexicography, foreign language didactics and German/Italian contrastive linguistics in general.

Target audience: Our collection of collocations is aimed at both learners and teachers of German and Italian, as well as at translators and interpreters.  The publication will serve both as a teaching and a learning tool, and will hopefully contribute to an increase in awareness of the importance of language-specific collocations in language learning and in German/Italian learner lexicography.

Relevance for the regions of Tyrol and South Tyrol: With Innsbruck University and the Department for Romance Languages geographically situated where they are, at the "crossroads” of the German and Romance / Italian speaking world, the idea of contrastive language comparison in general and of collocations in particular practically suggests itself. Italy is right "on our doorstep” and many students of Italian come from South Tyrol, i.e. from a region where German-Italian bilingualism is a socio-political fact and factor. Those students coming from the Ladin-speaking valleys have even grown up in a de-facto trilingual setting, in which all three languages not only occur on an individual and social level, but are firmly anchored institutionally (trilingual schooling and three official languages). Findings from contrastive research into collocations will therefore also be a valuable addition to teaching at university, particularly as students already come to university with a certain level of awareness / sensitivity and interest. By treating both of the major languages spoken in South Tyrol (German and Italian) as equal, the planned learner’s dictionary will also send a signal promoting multilingualism as a socio-cultural value and contributing to the peaceful coexistence of the various language groups in South Tyrol.

News

News, presentations and publications 2015 January 2015

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2015): “Scale ripide, mobili e a chiocciola – steile, Roll- und Wendeltreppen. Diverse categorie di combinazioni lessicali italiane del tipo ‘N + Agg o SPrep’ e i loro equivalenti tedeschi – un confronto interlinguistico.” In: Lavric, Eva; Pöckl, Wolfgang (eds.): Comparatio delectat II. Akten der VII. Internationalen Arbeitstagung zum romanisch-deutschen und innerromanischen Sprachvergleich, Innsbruck, 6.-8. September 2012. Teil 2. Frankfurt a.M. [et al.]: Lang [InnTrans], 567-586. (more information)

  News, presentations and publications 2014 October 2014

Autelli, Erica (2014; co-authors: Abel, Andrea; Konecny, Christine): “Phraseologische und fehlerlinguistische Analyse formelhafter Sequenzen in einem L2-Lernerkorpus des Italienischen: Das LEKO-Projekt.” Presentation at the congress “MehrWortverbindungen – Kollokationen: Sprachgebrauch und Wörterbücher”, Basel, 13-14/10/2014.

  September 2014 Project website "LEKO"

In September 2014 we went online with the website of the research project "LEKO - Lexemkombinationen und typisierte Rede im mehrsprachigen Kon­text” (“LEKO - Lexeme combinations and typified speech in a multilingual context"), which is closely connected to our collocations project, is also financed by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen - South Tyrol and is carried out in cooperation with the European Academy of Bolzano (EURAC). On the LEKO website you can find, among others, also didactic material for teaching and learning word combinations in Italian and in other languages. We are looking forward to your visits on this new website!

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2014): "LEKO - Lexemkombinationen und typisierte Rede im mehrsprachigen Kontext." In: http://www.leko-project.org.

Bild Homepage Leko Publication

Konecny, Christine (2014): "Unikale Lexeme – 'Spuren' der Diachronie in der Synchronie? Eine Analyse anhand ausgewählter italienischer Phraseo­logismen." In: Melchior, Luca; Göschl, Albert; Rieger, Rita; Fischer, Michaela; Voit, Andreea (eds.): Spuren.Suche (in) der Romania. Beiträge zum XXVIII. Forum Junge Romanistik in Graz (18.-21. April 2012). Frankfurt a.M. [et al.]: Lang [Forum Junge Romanistik; 19], 283-298. (more information)

Presentation

Autelli, Erica (2014): “The Italian-German Collocations Dictionary «Kollo­ka­tionen Italienisch-Deutsch»: its structure, innovative aspects and possible appli­ca­tion methods in class.” Presentation at the International Conference “Europhras 2014” on the topic “La phraséologie: ressources, descriptions et traitements informatiques”, Paris, 2014/09/10-12.

 
May 2014

Konecny, Christine (2014): Christine Konecny im Gespräch mit Südtirolerinnen und Südtirolern über Kollokationen und das Wörterbuchprojekt “Kollokationen Italienisch-Deutsch” (Radiobeitrag, zusammengestellt von Dr. Helga Pernter)(= "Christine Konecny discusses with South Tyrolean people about collocations and the dictionary project 'Kollokationen Italienisch-Deutsch (radio contribution by Dr. Helga Pernter).") In: Radio Grüne Welle – RGW (Kirchensender der Diözese Bozen-Brixen), broadcasted several times in the programs "Guten Morgen Südtirol”, “RGW am Vormittag” and “RGW am Nachmittag”, 2014/05/05-11.

 
April 2014

Konecny, Christine (2014): Radio interview by Petra Farkas with Christine Konecny about collocations and the research project "'Limping' chairs, 'dancing' teeth and 'lost' busses. In: Tele Radio Vinschgau, Inforubrik, 2014/04/14 (13.10-13.30). (listen to Tele Radio Vinschgau online)

 
March 2014

Konecny, Christine (2014): "Was hilft gegen 'hinkende' Stühle und 'tanzende' Zähne?" (= "What helps against 'limping' chairs and 'dancing' teeth"?) Presentation at the library Landesbibliothek "Dr. Friedrich Teßmann", in cooperation with and organized by the "Sprachstelle" at the Südtiroler Kulturinstitut (Cultural Institute of South Tyrol), Bolzano, 2014/03/2014. (Announcement in GermanAnnouncement in Italian)

 
February 2014

Konecny, Christine (2014): “Pulcinellas Geheimnis … oder: Wortverbindung im Deutschen und Italienischen im Vergleich (Christine Konecny im Gespräch mit Monika Obrist).” (= "The secret of Pulcinella ... or: Word combination in German and Italian - a comparison (interview by Monika Obrist with Christine Konecny).") In: ein//blick – Das Magazin des Südtiroler Kulturinstituts, Nr. 40, February 2014, 20-22. (Link "Südtiroler Kulturinstitut")

 
January 2014

Konecny, Christine (2014): “Kollokationen und Möglichkeiten ihrer didaktischen Aufbereitung: Überlegungen aus semantischer, sprachkontrastiver und lexikographischer Perspektive.” (= "Collocations and possibilities of treating them in language didactics: proposals from a semantic, contrastive and lexicographic perspective.") Guest lecture at the University of Stuttgart, 2014/01/07.

Konecny, Christine (2014): “Wie man im Deutschen und Italienischen die richtige Wortverbindung findet (Interview mit Monika Obrist).” ("How to find the correct word combination in German and Italian (interview with Monika Obrist).") In: Sprach_info – Informationen der Sprachstelle im Südtiroler Kulturinstitut, Nr. 19, January 2014, 2-4. (Link "Südtiroler Kulturinstitut (Cultural Institute of South Tyrol)")

In the issue of the journal “Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega” dated 15/2013 a review by Simona Brunetti (TU Dresden) on the book "Kollokationen" by Christine Konecny can be found (on the pages 513-516) (Link “Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega”).

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News, presentations and publications 2013 December 2013

Konecny, Christine (2013): “Das Projekt eines neuen italienisch-deutschen Kollokationswörterbuches und sein innovativer Beitrag zur bilingualen Lernerlexikographie.” In: Cantarini, Sibilla (ed.): Wortschatz, Wortschätze im Vergleich und Wörterbücher. Methoden, Instrumente und neue Perspektiven. Frankfurt a.M. [et al.]: Lang [Kontrastive Linguistik / Linguistica contrastiva; 3], 135-159. (more information)

Autelli, Erica (2013): “Come far parte di un dizionario bilingue con un tuo disegno.” Presentation with workshop at the "NMS Stams-Rietz” middle school, Stams, 2013/12/16.

 
November 2013 Junge Uni (= Young University Day) 2013

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): “Italienisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch der Wortverbindungen: Seine Entstehung, sein Aufbau und wie du mit einer Zeichnung (noch) Teil davon werden kannst!” Interactive presentation with workshop at the “Junge Uni 2013” (= Young University Day), University of Innsbruck, 2013/11/22-23. (see “Photos / Public relations events”)

Publication

Konecny, Christine; Konzett, Carmen (2013): “Wortschatzlernen als Vorbereitung auf Sprachmittlungsaufgaben: Lexemkombinationen und kontrastive Wortschatzdidaktik im mehrsprachigen Unterricht.” In: Reimann, Daniel; Rössler, Andrea (eds.): Sprachmittlung im Fremdsprachenunterricht. Tübingen: Narr [Romanistische Fremdsprachenforschung und Unterrichtsentwicklung; 1], 261-280. (more information)

 
October 2013 Description of the LEKO project on the website of the European Academy of Bolzano (EURAC)

In October 2013, a description in German and Italian of the research project LEKO ("Lexemkombinationen und typisierte Rede im mehrsprachigen Kontext. Authentische Sprachdaten für die Erarbeitung didaktischer Materialien zur italienischen Wortkombinatorik für deutschsprachige L2-Lerner." = “LEKO - Lexeme combinations and typified speech in a multilingual context. Authentic linguistic data for the creation of didactic material on Italian word combinations for German-speaking L2 learners.”) was published on the website of the European Academy of Bolzano (EURAC). This project, which is closely connected to our collocations project, is also financed by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen - South Tyrol and is carried out in cooperation with the European Academy of Bolzano (EURAC):

Description of LEKO project – German version
Description of LEKO project – Italian version
Description of LEKO project – English Version
 
September 2013 Presentations

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine (2013): “Assegnare fraseologismi ai livelli di competenza del QCER: un’impresa (im)possibile? Un’investigazione basata su esempi italiani e tedeschi.” Presentation as part of the workshop “Fraseologismi dell’italiano: aspetti lessicologici e lessicografici nel confronto interlinguistico” at the “XLVII Congresso Internazionale di Studi della Società di Linguistica Italiana (SLI 2013)”, Salerno, 2013/09/26-28.

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): “Tra fissità fraseologica e valenza: un’analisi contrastiva di combinazioni lessicali italiane e tedesche.” Presentation as part of the workshop “Fraseologismi dell’italiano: aspetti lessicologici e lessicografici nel confronto interlinguistico” at the “XLVII Congresso Internazionale di Studi della Società di Linguistica Italiana (SLI 2013)”, Salerno, 2013/09/26-28.

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): “Combining Lexicography with Second-Language Didactics: The Case of the Bilingual Collocations Dictionary Kollokationen Italienisch-Deutsch.” Plenary presentation at the congress “X Anniversary School on Lexicography «Life beyond Dictionaries»”, Florence, 2013/09/12-14.

Publication in Conference Proceedings

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): "Combining Lexicography with Second-Language Didactics: The Case of the Bilingual Collocations Dictionary Kollokationen Italienisch-Deutsch." In: Karpova, Olga (ed.): Life beyond Dictionaries: Proceedings of X Anniversary School on Lexicography. Ivanovo – Florence, September 12-14, 2013. Ivanovo: Ivanovo State University, 268-271.

Short report on the website of the "NMS Stams-Rietz" middle school

In September 2013 a report was published on the website of the "Neue Mittelschule Stams-Rietz” middle school, mentioning three illustrations drawn by students in April 2013 as part of one of our workshops about collocations: Link to the report on the school's website

 
July 2013 Editorship

Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (eds.) (2013): Phraseologie im Sprachunterricht und in der Sprachendidaktik / Phraseology in language teaching and in language didactics. Maribor: Mednarodna založba Oddelka za slovanske jezike in književnosti, Filozofska fakulteta [Zora; 94], 173 pages.

[ISBN: 978-961-6930-02-4]
(More information about the book)
(More information about the series “Zora”)
Publications

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): “Learning Italian phrasemes through their conceptualizations.” In: Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (eds.): Phraseologie im Sprachunterricht und in der Sprachendidaktik / Phraseology in language teaching and in language didactics. Maribor: Mednarodna založba Oddelka za slovanske jezike in književnosti, Filozofska fakulteta [Zora; 94], 117-136.

Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (2013): “Einleitung.” / “Introduction.” In: Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (eds.): Phraseologie im Sprachunterricht und in der Sprachendidaktik / Phraseology in language teaching and in language didactics. Maribor: Mednarodna založba Oddelka za slovanske jezike in književnosti, Filozofska fakulteta [Zora; 94], 7-17.

Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (2013): “Zum Status quo der Phraseodidaktik: Aktuelle Forschungsfragen, Desiderata und Zukunftsperspektiven.” In: Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (eds.): Phraseologie im Sprachunterricht und in der Sprachendidaktik / Phraseology in language teaching and in language didactics. Maribor: Mednarodna založba Oddelka za slovanske jezike in književnosti, Filozofska fakulteta [Zora; 94], 153-172.

Short report on one of our workshops in the annual report of the “Bundesrealgymnasium Adolf-Pichler-Platz" high school (Innsbruck)

In the annual report of the "Bundesrealgymnasium Adolf-Pichler-Platz” high school, a short report by Mag. Gabriele Pisek can be found, focusing on the workshop  held by Christine Konecny and Erica Autelli in January 2013 (see “Photos / Workshops at schools”), entitled “Pensare all’italiana con l’aiuto di disegni. Fächer­über­greifender Workshop zu italienischen Redewendungen” (p. 102-103).

 
June 2013 Short report on our project in the “Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega”

In the issue of the journal “Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega” dated 14/2012, which has been available online since 06/2013, a short two-page report on our project can be found: Short report in the journal “Cadernos de Fraseoloxía Galega”, Nr. 14/2012 (p. 399-400)

 
April 2013

Autelli, Erica (2013): “Imparare fraseologismi italiani e tedeschi tramite le loro visualizzazioni - un interscambio tra alunni italiani e austriaci.” Presentation with workshop at the "NMS Stams-Rietz" middle school, Stams, 2013/04/18. (see “Photos / Workshops at schools”; Report on the school’s website)

Konecny, Christine (2013): “Tipi di combinazioni di parole, il loro uso e proposte per il loro insegnamento.” Advanced training course for teachers of Italian at the Department for German Schools of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen - South Tyrol, Bolzano, 2013/04/08-09.

 
January 2013

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): “Pensare ‘all’italiana’ con l’aiuto di disegni.” Presentation with workshop at the high school "Bundesrealgymnasium Adolf-Pichler-Platz", Innsbruck, 2013/01/23, 2013/01/30. (see “Photos / Workshops at schools”)

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News, presentations and publications 2012 December 2012 Christine Konecny and Erica Autelli winners in the “Second Contest for Scientific Research Projects” of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen - South Tyrol

In October 2012 it was announced that the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen - South Tyrol would be financing a second project closely connected to the current one. Starting in 2013, the new project will be carried out by Christine Konecny (project head) and Erica Autelli in cooperation with the European Academy of Bolzano (EURAC). The full project title is "LeKo - Lexemkombinationen und typisierte Rede im mehrsprachigen Kontext. Authentische Sprachdaten für die Erarbeitung didaktischer Materialien zur italienischen Wortkombinatorik für deutschsprachige L2-Lerner." (= “LeKo - Lexeme combinations and typified speech in a multilingual context. Authentic linguistic data for the creation of didactic material on Italian word combinations for German-speaking L2 learners.”). The awards ceremony took place on the 20th December 2012 in Bolzano.

Press release “Land fördert 25 Forschungsprojekte” ('Province funds 25 research projects') (Italian version: "25 progetti di ricerca scientifica sostenuti dalla Provincia"); Press release "Sieger des Wettbewerbs für Projekte im Bereich der wissenschaftlichen Forschung" (Italian version: "Finanziamento della ricerca scientifica per 25 progetti")
 
November 2012 Erica Autelli receives Richard & Emmy Bahr award

In October of 2012, Erica Autelli received a research award from the foundation “Richard & Emmy Bahr-Stiftung in Schaffhausen”. This prize is given to students with outstanding academic track records who show dedication and initiative and who want to use the grant to pursue challenging academic plans and projects. In general, students of history or German studies are given preference. Congratu­lations!

iPoint article “Richard und Emmy Bahr Stipendien vergeben”
 
October 2012

Konecny, Christine (2012): "Da chiodi 'piantati' a DVD 'vergini' e lacrime 'inghiottite'. Insegnamento e rappresentazione lessicografica di collocazioni lessicali italiane per apprendenti tedescofoni (sulla base del DIB - Dizionario di base della lingua italiana)." In: Ferreri, Silvana (ed.): Lessico e Lessicologia. Atti del XLIV. Congresso Internazionale di Studi della Società di Linguistica Italiana (SLI), Viterbo, 27-29 settembre 2010. Roma: Bulzoni [Pubblicazioni della Società di Linguistica Italiana; 56], 463-477. (more information)

 
September 2012

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Polysemie, Valenz und Kollokationen in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie Italienisch-Deutsch: Plädoyer für ein integriertes, dynamisches Repräsentationsmodell auf lernerorientierter und semantisch-kognitiver Basis.” Presentation at the GAL Congress 2012 on the topic "Wörter - Wissen - Wörterbücher" (= "Words - knowledge - dictionaries"), Erlangen, 2012/09/18-21.

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Scale ripide, mobili e a chiocciola - steile, Roll- und Wendeltreppen. Diverse categorie di combinazioni lessicali italiane del tipo 'N + Agg o SPrep' e i loro equivalenti tedeschi - un confronto interlinguistico." Presentation at the VII. Internationale Arbeitstagung "Romanisch-deutscher und innerromanischer Sprachvergleich", Innsbruck, 2012/09/05-08.

 
Premio Giovanni Nencioni 2012Christine Konecny receives “Premio Giovanni Nencioni 2012” award from the Accademia della Crusca

In September 2012, Christine Konecny was awarded the prestigeous “Premio Giovanni Nencioni 2012” for her monograph “Kollokationen”. The cere­mony took place at the Accademia della Crusca in Florence (Italy). Founded in 1583, it is the oldest linguistic society in the world.

iPoint article "Innsbrucker Nachwuchslinguistin erhält Preis der Accademia della Crusca"; Press information; Press release 1; Press release 2; Press release 3; Press release 4; Press release 5; Press release 6; Press release 7; Website of the Accademia della Crusca
 
August 2012

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Learning Italian phrasemes through their conceptualisations.” Presentation at the International Conference “Europhras 2012” on the topic “Phraseology and Culture", Maribor, 2012/08/26-31.

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine (2012): "Creating a bilingual learner’s dictionary of Italian and German collocations: strategies and methods for searching, choosing and representing collocations on the basis of a learner-oriented, semantic-conceptual approach." Presentation at the 15th EURALEX International Congress, Oslo, 2012/08/07-11.

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine; Bradl-Albrich, Martina (2012): "Creating a bilingual learner's dictionary of Italian and German collocations: strategies and methods for searching, selecting and representing collocations on the basis of a learner-oriented, semantic-conceptual approach." In: Vatvedt Fjeld, Ruth; Torjusen, Julie Matilde (eds.): Proceedings of the 15th Euralex International Congress, Oslo, 7-11 August 2012. Oslo: Department of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies of the University of Oslo, 726-736. (to the article)

 
June 2012

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Le collocazioni nel linguaggio quotidiano: differenze tra italiano e tedesco." Presentation with workshop at the "HLW Reuttevocational high school, Reutte, 2012/06/25. (Report on the school's website)

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine (2012): “Italienische Phraseologismen und ihre Bildlichkeit: Imparare fraseologismi italiani attraverso la visualizzazione delle immagini mentali da loro evocate." Presentation with workshop at the "Neue Mittel- und Sportmittelschule Königsweg Reutte” middle school, Reutte, 2012/06/26. (Report on the school's website)

 
May 2012

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): “Italienische Vokabeln und Wortverbindungen spielerisch erlernen.” Presentation with workshop at the "Bundesrealgymnasium in der Au” high school, Innsbruck, 2012/05/24.

Konecny, Christine; Bradl-Albrich, Martina (2012): "Siehst du den 'tanzenden' Zahn? Memorisieren lexikalischer Kollokationen des Italienischen als L2-Sprache mit Hilfe einer erweiterten keyword-Methode." In: Hinger, Barbara; Unterrainer, Eva Maria; Newby, David (eds.): Sprachen lernen: Kompetenzen entwickeln - Performanzen (über)prüfen. Tagungsband der 5. Tagung der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Sprachdidaktik (ÖGSD): Innsbruck, 23.-25. September 2010. Wien: Praesens, 214-235. (more information)

 
April 2012

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Warum funktionieren wörtliche Übersetzungen in eine Fremdsprache (z.B. Italienisch) oft nicht?" Interactive presentation with workshop at the Tiroler Nacht der Forschung, Bildung und Innovation (= "Tyrolean Night of Research, Education and Innovation"), University of Innsbruck, 2012/04/28.

Konecny, Christine (2012): "Unikale Lexeme - 'Spuren' der Diachronie in der Synchronie? Eine Analyse anhand ausgewählter italienischer Phraseologismen.” Presentation at the XXVIII. Forum Junge Romanistik (= FJR 2012) on the topic "Spuren.Suche (in) der Romania", Graz, 2012/04/18-21.

Konecny, Christine (2012): "Wirf' mal einen Blick darauf - Dacci un po' un'occhiata! Zu interlingualen Abweichungen in italienischen und deutschen Verb-Substantiv-Kollokationen und deren Relevanz für die Translationsdidaktik und die translatologische Praxis." In: Zybatow, Lew; Petrova, Alena; Ustaszewski, Michael (eds.): Translationswissenschaft interdisziplinär: Fragen der Theorie und Didaktik / Translation Studies: Interdisciplinary Issues of Theory and Didactics. Tagungsband der 1. Internationalen Konferenz TRANSLATA "Translationswissenschaft: gestern - heute - morgen", 12.-14. Mai 2011, Innsbruck / Proceedings of the 1st International Conference TRANSLATA "Translation & Interpreting Research: Yesterday - Today - Tomorrow", May 12-14, 2011, Innsbruck. Frankfurt a.M. [et al.]: Lang [Forum Translationswissenschaft; 15], 299-306. (more information)

 
March 2012

Autelli, Erica (2012): “Creare un dizionario bilingue con aiuti visivi per individuare le diverse concettualizzazioni dell’italiano e del tedesco.” Presentation at the Kolloquium “Limes VIII” für Promovierende und Promovierte der romanischen Sprachwissenschaft, Tübingen, 2012/03/15-17.

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): “‘Pacchetti’ di parole prefabbricati - un paragone tra italiano e tedesco.” Presentation with workshop at the "Neue Mittelschule Dr. Fritz Prior” middle school, Innsbruck, 2012/03/08-09.

 
February 2012

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): “Combinazioni di parole italiane e le loro traduzioni in tedesco.” Presentation with workshop at the "Volksschule Innere Stadt Innsbruck” primary school as part of the pilot project “German-Italian bilingual primary school”, Innsbruck, 2012/02/23.

Konecny, Christine (2012): “Das Projekt eines neuen italienisch-deutschen Kollokationswörterbuches und sein innovativer Beitrag zur bilingualen Lernerlexikografie.” Presentation at the international conference "Lessico e lessici a confronto: metodi, strumenti e nuove prospettive” (Section “Tedesco”), Verona, 2012/02/02-03.

Glossary

Collocation (derived from Latin collocatio [con + locare ‘put together / side by side’]) [=> see "What we mean by collocation"]: According to a narrow, semantic definition, collocations are specific types of phraseologisms that fall somewhere between free word combinations on the one side and idiomatic expressions (e.g. fixed idioms) on the other. Collocations are thus neither "freely" combinable, nor fully idiomaticized. This is why they are often referred to as "semi-fixed". Typically, they are binary word combinations that are made up of two parts: the so-called base and the so-called collocator. The base is hierarchically higher than the collocator (in other words, the choice of collocator is always dependent on the base). The base word is usually used in its literal sense, while the meaning of the collocator within the collocation can be different from the word's basic or literal meaning. The collocator is thus the "unpredictable" half of the pair, the part that may differ from language to language, and the part that foreign language learners often don't know, get wrong or have to look up. For instance, in the collocations piantare un chiodo (‘hammer / drive [lit. “plant”] a nail into a wall’), la lezione salta (‘the lesson is cancelled [lit. “jumps”]’), and un CD / DVD vergine (‘a blank [lit. “virginal”] CD / DVD’), the nouns chiodo, lezione and CD / DVD are the bases, and the verbs piantare and saltare and the adjective vergine are the collocators.

Collocational range: This term refers to the sum of all words (lexemes) with which a specific word can enter into a lexical combination. If a word can be combined with a large number of other words, it has a large / broad collocational range (e.g. profondo ‘deep’, mangiare ‘eat’). If it can only be combined with few words, it has a narrow collocational range (e.g. commettere can only be used in combination with a few nouns that have negative connotations, such as reato ‘crime’, omicidio ‘murder’, furto ‘theft’ etc.). A very few lexemes even have a so-called “unique” or maximally restricted collocational range, such as scozzare, which can practically only be used with le carte (‘(playing) cards’) to mean 'to shuffle the cards'.

Conceptualization:  The term denotes the particular “angle” or “perspective” a language takes when considering a specific object. The conceptualization forms a sort of “bridge” between the mental image / concept and the linguistic form used to express it, highlighting a specific aspect of the object. Conceptualization is often different from one language to another. The German Handtuch lit. “hand-cloth” is thus a cloth / towel intended for hands, while the Italian asciugamano is simply ‘something which dries the hands’; the function of the object is thus foregrounded to a much greater degree in Italian (asciugare = ‘to dry’, mano = ‘hand’). In some cases, conceptualizations can be similar or even identical across languages, as in ammazzare il tempo - die Zeit totschlagen - to kill time (in German lit. “to beat to death”).

Free word combination: a grouping of two or more words that can be combined (more or less) “freely”, though always within the limits of certain semantic minimal rules (so-called “selectional restrictions”). For instance, the verb mangiare (‘to eat’) can be combined with una mela (‘an apple’), un panino (‘a sandwich’) or una pizza (‘a pizza’), but not with un tavolo (‘a table’), since the latter not generally considered edible. However, this degree of “freedom” can vary greatly. It is therefore impossible to draw a clear line between free lexical combinations and collocations.

Glottodidactics (also: (foreign) language didactics; derived from Ancient Greek glotta ‘language’ and didáskein ‘teach’): Glottodidactics are a field of study concerned with the theory and practice of teaching and learning foreign languages or languages in general.

Idiom (also: idiomatic expression, figure of speech; derived from Ancient Greek idíōma ‘special phrasing’): An idiom is a phrase or lexical combination whose overall meaning cannot be derived or understood from the meanings of its parts. For instance, even if we can understand the literal meaning of the Italian idiom cadere dalla padella nella brace, lit. “fall from the pan into the blaze” (similar to the English equivalent “out of the frying pan into the fire”), we wouldn't necessarily arrive at the implied idiomatic meaning of ‘things going from bad to worse’ or ‘escaping one bad situation only to find oneself in an even worse one’. This does not mean that idioms have no motivation, or that the motivation is always opaque or lost over time. In many cases, the original motivation of an idiom is easy to recognize, e.g. in alzare il gomito (‘have a few [drinks] too many’, lit. “lift the elbow”), since people typically lift their elbow when draining a glass or a bottle (containing alcohol). The same is true for avere le mani di pastafrolla (‘to be clumsy / all thumbs’, lit. “to have hands made of dough”).

Lemma (from Ancient Greek lemma ‘premise’, ‘assumption’): the canonical form, citation form or headword of a set of words; i.e. the heading under which you would find a specific word (lexeme) in a dictionary or book of reference. For example the entry / lemma andare (‘to go’) includes other forms of the same verb, e.g. vado (‘I go’), andato (‘gone’) or andando (‘going’).

Lexeme combination (also: lexical combination; cf. Ancient Greek léxis ‘word’): the linguistic term for a combination of two or more words (lexemes), which are rigid / fixed to a greater or lesser degree. The types range from free word combinations (which are unfixed or hardly fixed), to collocations (semi-fixed) to idioms (strongly fixed). Deciding whether such a word group is a phraseologism (phraseme) is difficult and depends very strongly on the definition of phraseologism. The term "lexeme combination" is more neutral and less specific, since it encompasses all types of word combinations, even free ones.

Lexicalized metaphor: Most of us know metaphors as the kind of “flowery” language, “verbal images” and “figures of speech” found in literature or poetry. Once a metaphor has entered into common use (i.e. most speakers of a language are familiar with it; it is not created on the spot by an individual author or in a specific situation), it is called a “lexicalized metaphor”. Metaphors play an important part in the changing meaning of words over the course of history, and contribute considerably to the development of polysemy (one word with several meanings). For instance, the collocation covare una malattia (‘to incubate a disease’ / ‘to be coming down with something’) came about through the metaphoric use of the verb derived from covare le uova (‘to hatch / incubate eggs’) (concrete -> abstract). Today, this former metaphor is lexicalized, and the word covare in the sense of ‘incubate [a disease]’ can be found in dictionaries. Native speakers often don’t even recognize lexicalized metaphors as metaphors, but foreign language learners have to consciously learn polysemous words and lexicalized metaphoric use of words.

Lexicography: a practically oriented subfield of linguistics dedicated to compiling and writing dictionaries and similar reference works. The more theoretical scholarly discipline of metalexicography focuses on the scientific analysis of existing dictionaries and the concept of dictionaries in general.

Motivation: This term refers to the semantic transparency of linguistic signs and units, i.e. whether one can tell what a word (combination) means just from the way it sounds or looks. With most single linguistic signs (e.g. words), the connection with their meaning is arbitrary (for instance, there is no good reason why a particular animal is called dog in English, cane in Italian and Hund in German). Lexical combinations, however, are always (at least initially) motivated in some way or other and characterized by a specific conceptualization. Motivation in synchronous language usage is only given in those cases where the meaning of a lexical unit can be understood on the basis of its form and of the speakers’ knowledge of the world (cf. the semantically transparent collocations listed under Examples”). Sometimes, however, the original motivation has been lost over the course of history and is no longer obvious in the present. One such example is stipulare un contratto (‘seal a contract’ or ‘to stipulate’), which is derived from the Latin word stípula or ‘straw’: in Ancient Rome, it was customary to seal a contract by breaking a straw in half.

Phraseology and phraseologisms (also: phrasemes): Phraseology is the subfield of linguistics that studies phraseologisms / phrasemes (e.g. set expressions or set phrases). There are broad and narrow views both of phrasemes and phraseology. In a more narrow notion of the terms, phraseology deals only with true idioms, i.e. the kind of lexical combinations whose overall meaning cannot be understood from the meaning of its parts. A broader definition also considers other types of fixed word combinations as phrasemes, including collocations, routine formulae (e.g. Quanti anni hai? - How old are you?), and proverbs (Chi fa da sé fa per tre. - If you want something done (right), do it yourself).

Polysemy (derived from Ancient Greek polýs ‘many’ / ‘several’ and séma ‘sign’) means the capacity of a linguistic sign to have several meanings, which is typically found at word (lexeme) level. A word is considered polysemous if it has two or more meanings that share an etymological and semantic connection. The most basic meaning of the Italian word spina is ‘thorn’; in a derived meaning however, based on a metonymic cause-effect relationship, the word can also mean ‘an intense / stabbing pain’. That is why in a dictionary you will typically find the various meanings of a polysemous word under a single lemma (entry). In collocations, polysemy plays an important role, particularly with verbs and adjectives as collocators, since these word types are often polysemous and have taken on a metaphorical use, as in abbracciare una professione ‘take up a career / profession’, lit. “to embrace / hug a career / profession”, or in una curva cieca ‘a blind curve’. Since polysemy is distributed very differently depending on the language, collocational range, verbal imagery and collocations also differ strongly from language to language.

Semi-idiomatic collocations (also: semi-idioms, partially idiomatic collocations, partial idioms) [=> see "What we mean by collocation"]: In this type of collocations, the collocator is idiomatized, such as in the collocation un numero verde ‘a (toll)free [lit. “green”] (phone) number’. However, since the base is not used idiomatically (numero = ‘(phone) number’), this type of lexical combination is only partially idiomatic, and thus cannot be considered as fully idiomatic; it is still a collocation because at least one part of the combination is used in its literal sense and the overall meaning can still be derived from the meanings of its parts. Some semi-idioms show an “unusual collocational syntax”, as is the case with divertirsi un mondo (‘to be highly diverted / amused / to have a wonderful time’, lit. “to be a world amused”). In this case, divertirsi is the base because it is the part that can be understood literally, while the modal adverb un mondo is an idiomatically used collocator.

Stretched verb construction (SVC; also: light verb construction): This type of word combination is sometimes seen as a specific type of collocation, and sometimes seen as separate. These constructions consist of a verb + direct object (e.g. fare / porre una domanda - ask a question; prendere una decisione - make a decision) or of a verb + prepositional phrase (e.g. mettere a disposizione - to put (sth.) at (sb.’s) disposal, prendere in considerazione - to consider sth. / take sth. into consideration). SVCs’ distinguishing feature is that the verb mainly conveys grammatical information while the main semantic information is carried by the noun. A SVC is therefore often the synonym of a simple verb, with little difference in the connotative meaning (e.g. fare una domanda - domandare, prendere una decisione - decidere).

Examples

The following are examples of collocations that evoke very clear images, and are thus suited to being depicted in drawings and artwork. Depending on the collocation, the imagery for Italian and German can be different or - in a few cases - also similar or identical:

1) Noun (subject) + verb:
  • il dente balla (also: dondola, traballa) = der Zahn wackelt (lit.: "der Zahn tanzt”); the tooth is loose / wobbly / wiggly (lit.: "the tooth is dancing”)
  • mi si è addormentata la gamba = mir ist das Bein eingeschlafen (the same as in German); my leg has fallen asleep (the same as in English)
  • mi formicola la gamba = mir kribbelt das Bein, ich habe Ameisenlaufen im Bein (lit. [more or less]: “mir ameist das Bein / ich habe Ameisen im Bein”; cf. la formica = die Ameise); my leg is tingling (lit. [more or less]: “my legs are anting / I have ants in my leg”; cf. la formica = the ant)
  • la lezione salta = die (Unterrichts-)Stunde fällt aus / entfällt (lit.: "die (Unterrichts-)Stunde springt”); the lesson is cancelled (lit.: "the lesson jumps”)
  • la malattia esplode (also: scoppia) = die Krankheit bricht aus (lit.: "die Krankheit explodiert”); the illness / disease breaks out (lit.: "the illness / disease explodes”)
  • il malcontento serpeggia (nella popolazione) = Unzufriedenheit macht sich (in der Bevölkerung) breit (lit.: "Unzufriedenheit schlängelt sich (in der Bevölkerung)"; cf. il serpente = die Schlange); discontent is spreading (among the people) (lit.: "discontent slithers / moves like a snake (among the people)”; cf. il serpente = the snake)
  • il motore sfarfalla = der Motor flattert (similar to German; cf. la farfalla = der Schmetterling); the engine / motor is wobbling (lit.: "the engine / motor flutters like a butterfly”; cf. la farfalla = the butterfly)
  • la sedia zoppica (also: traballa) = der Stuhl wackelt (lit.: "der Stuhl hinkt”); the chair is rickety / wobbly (lit.: "the chair is limping”)
  • il sole tramonta = die Sonne geht unter (lit.: "die Sonne verschwindet jenseits der Berge”; cf. il monte = der Berg); the sun sets (lit.: “the sun disappears beyond the mountains”; cf. il monte = the mountain)
  • mi fuma la testa = mir raucht der Kopf (the same as in German); my head is spinning / my brains are fried [in the sense of ‘I am mentally exhausted’] (lit. "my head is smoking / smoldering”)
  • il treno fischia = der Zug pfeift (the same as in German); the train whistles (the same as in English)
2) Verb + noun (direct object):
  • cementare un’amicizia = eine Freundschaft festigen (lit.: "eine Freundschaft einzementieren”); to cement a friendship (the same as in English)
  • cotonare i capelli = die Haare toupieren (lit.: "die Haare mit Baumwolle polstern / zu Baumwollknäueln formen”; cf. il cotone = die Baumwolle); to backcomb / tease one’s hair (lit.: "to fill one's hair with cotton”; cf. cotone = cotton)
  • stirare (also: lisciare) i capelli = die Haare glätten (lit.: "die Haare bügeln”); to straighten one's hair (lit.: "to iron one's hair”)
  • congelare il capitale / i prezzi = das Kapital / die Preise einfrieren (the same as in German); to freeze funds / prices (the same as in English)
  • piantare un chiodo (in qcs.) = einen Nagel (in etw.) einschlagen (lit.: "einen Nagel (in etw.) (ein-)pflanzen”); to hammer / drive a nail (into sth.) (lit. “to plant a nail (into sth.)”)
  • accavallare le gambe = die Beine übereinander schlagen (lit. [more or less]: "die Beine verpferdern”; cf. il cavallo = das Pferd); to cross one's legs (lit. [more or less]: “to horse one’s legs”; cf. il cavallo = the horse)
  • sgranchirsi le gambe = sich die Beine vertreten, die Beine ausstrecken (lit.: "die Beine wie ein Krebs bewegen”; cf. il granchio = der Krebs [Tier]); to stretch one's legs (lit.: "to move one's legs like a crab”; cf. il granchio = the crab)
  • accarezzare un'idea = sich mit einem Gedanken tragenmit einem Gedanken spielen (lit.: "einen Gedanken / eine Idee streicheln / liebkosen”); to toy / tinker with the idea of doing sth. / to be thinking about doing sth. (lit.: "to caress an idea”)
  • inghiottire / ingoiare le lacrime = die Tränen hinunterschlucken (the same as in German); to swallow one's tears (the same as in English)
  • appianare una lite = einen Streit schlichten (lit.: "einen Streit einebnen”); to settle a dispute (lit.: "to plane a dispute”)
  • covare (also: incubare) una malattia = eine Krankheit ausbrüten (the same as in German); to incubate a disease / to be coming down with something (the same as in English, i.e. “to hatch / incubate a disease [like an egg]”)
  • spaccare il minuto = auf die Minute pünktlich sein (lit.: "die Minute spalten / zerschlagen / entzweischlagen”); to be dead on time / punctual to the minute (lit.: “to smash / split the minute into (two) pieces”)
  • pescare un numero = eine Nummer ziehen (lit.: "eine Nummer fischen”; cf. il pesce = der Fisch); to draw a number in a raffle (tombola) (lit.: “to fish a number out of the barrel”; cf. il pesce = the fish)
  • strizzare l’occhio (a qcn.) = das Auge zusammenkneifen, also: (jemandem) zuzwinkern / zublinzeln (lit.: "das Auge auswringen / auspressen”); to squint, also: to wink at sb. (lit.: "to wring one's eye out”)
  • allungare il passo = den Schritt beschleunigen,  schneller gehen (lit.: "den Schritt verlängern”); to quicken one's pace (lit.: "to lengthen the pace”)
  • abbracciare (also: intraprendere) una professione = einen Beruf ergreifen (lit.: "einen Beruf umarmen”); to take up a career / profession (lit. “to embrace / hug a career / profession”)
  • accendere la radio = das Radio einschalten (lit.: "das Radio anzünden”); to turn on the radio (lit.: "to set fire to the radio”)
  • ricucire (also: ricostituire) un rapporto = eine Beziehung wieder herstellen / wieder aufnehmen (lit.: "eine Beziehung wieder zunähen / zusammenflicken”); to re-establish / to mend a relationship (lit.: "to sew a relationship back together / to stitch it up”)
  • custodire un segreto = ein Geheimnis hüten / bewahren (lit.: "ein Geheimnis (wie ein Wächter) bewachen”; cf. il custode = der Wächter); to keep a secret (lit.: "to guard / sentinel a secret”; cf. il custode = the guard, sentinel)
  • ammazzare il tempo = die Zeit totschlagen (lit.: "die Zeit töten / umbringen”); to kill time (the same as in English; in German lit.: "to beat time to death”)
  • perdere il treno = den Zug verpassen / versäumen (lit.: "den Zug verlieren”); to miss the train (lit.: "to lose the train”)
3) Verb + prepositional object:
  • essere inchiodato al letto = ans Bett gefesselt sein (weil man krank ist) (lit.: "ans Bett (fest)genagelt sein”; cf. il chiodo = der Nagel); to be confined to bed [due to illness] (lit.: "to be nailed to the bed”; cf. il chiodo = the nail)
  • fumare (also: ribollire) di rabbia = vor Wut kochen (lit.: "vor Wut rauchen”; ribollire = "nochmals aufkochen" / “überkochen" => similar as in German); to boil / simmer with rage, to be boiling mad (lit.: "to fume with rage”)
  • abboccare a uno scherzo = auf einen Scherz hereinfallen (lit.: "an einen Scherz  anbeißen [wie ein Fisch an einen Köder]”; cf. la bocca = der Mund); to fall for a joke / be taken in by a joke (lit.: "to bite into a joke [like a fish swallowing bait]”)
4) Noun + adjective or prepositional phrase:
  • il caldo soffocante (also: asfissiante) = die brütende / drückende Hitze (lit.: "die erstickende Hitze”, "die Hitze, die einen zum Ersticken bringt"); soffocating heat (the same as in English)
  • un CD / DVD vergine = eine leere / unbespielte CD / DVD; ein CD- / DVD-Rohling (lit.: "eine jungfräuliche CD / DVD"); a blank CD / DVD (lit.: "a virginal CD / DVD”)
  • un cervello da gallina = ein Spatzenhirn (lit.: "ein Hennen- / Hühnerhirn"); a featherbrain / a bird brain [fig.] (lit.: "a chicken brain”)
  • una curva a gomito = eine scharfe Kurve (lit.: "eine Ellbogenkurve"); a sharp curve (lit.: "an elbow curve”)
  • una curva cieca = eine unübersichtliche / scharfe Kurve (lit.: "eine blinde Kurve"); a blind curve (the same as in English)
  • il dente canino = der Eckzahn (lit.: "der  Hundezahn"; cf. il cane = der Hund); canine tooth (the same as in English; lit. "corner tooth" in German)
  • il dente del giudizio = der Weisheitszahn (lit.: "der Zahn des Urteils"); wisdom tooth (lit.: "tooth of judgement”)
  • una domanda a bruciapelo = eine unvermittelte Frage / eine Frage, die jemanden eiskalt erwischt (lit.: "eine Frage zum Fellverbrennen”; cf. bruciare = (ver)brennen, il pelo = das Fell); a sudden / unexspected question (lit.: "a question to burn the pelt”; cf. bruciare = to burn, il pelo = the pelt)
  • una domanda innocente = eine harmlose Frage (lit.: "eine unschuldige" Frage); an innocent question (the same as in English)
  • un dottore in erba = ein angehender oder frisch gebackener Doktor (lit.: "ein Doktor im Gras”); a newly made / fledgeling / green doctor (lit.: "a doctor in the grass”)
  • un dolore martellante = ein hämmernder Schmerz (the same as in German; cf. il martello = der Hammer); pounding pain (lit.: "a hammering pain”)
  • una fantasia sfrenata = eine blühende / lebhafte / ausgeprägte / grenzenlose Phantasie (lit.: "eine ungebremste Phantasie"; cf. il freno = die Bremse); a fertile / vivid / unbridled imagination (lit.: "an unbraked imagination”)
  • una febbre da cavallo = hohes Fieber (lit.: "Pferdefieber"); raging fever (lit.: "horse fever”)
  • la foresta vergine = der Urwald (lit.: "jungfräulicher Wald"); primeval forest / jungle (lit.: “virginal forest”)
  • un freddo pungente = eine schneidende / beißende / eisige / klirrende Kälte (lit.: "eine stachelige / stechende Kälte"); severe / extreme cold (lit.: "spiny / thorny cold”)
  • una giornata storta = ein Tag, an dem alles schief läuft (lit.: "ein schiefer/ krummer Tag"); an off day / bad day [when everything goes wrong] (lit.: “a crooked day”)
  • il letto a castello = das Stockbett (lit.: "das  Schlossbett"); a bunk bed (lit. “castle bed”)
  • una memoria da elefante (also: una memoria di ferro) = ein Bombengedächtnis (lit.: "ein Gedächtnis wie ein Elefant"); an infallible memory (lit.: “to have the memory of an elephant”)
  • il motore truccato = der (auf)frisierte / getunte Motor (lit.: "der geschminkte Motor"; truccare = schminken); a tuned up / souped-up  engine (lit.: "an engine with make-up”)
  • (avere) il naso chiuso = eine verstopfte Nase (haben) (lit.: "eine geschlossene Nase (haben)"); (to have) stuffy nose (lit.: "a closed nose”)
  • un numero verde = eine kostenlose (Ruf-)Nummer (lit.: "eine grüne Nummer"); a (toll)free (phone) number (lit. “a green (phone) number”)
  • gli occhi a mandorla = Schlitzaugen (lit.: "Mandelaugen"); slitted [Asian] eyes (lit.: "almond eyes”)
  • gli occhi sbarrati (also: spalancati) = die (weit) aufgerissenen Augen (lit.: "die mit einem Schranken versperrten / aufgehaltenen Augen"); wide open eyes (lit.: "barred eyes”)
  • i pantaloni a zampa di elefante / a campana = die Schlaghose / Glockenhose (lit.: "die Hose mit Elefantenfüßen / -pranken"; a campana: the same as "Glockenhose" in German); bell-bottoms (lit.: "trousers with the feet / paws of an elephant”; a campana: similar to English)
  • i pantaloni gessati = die Nadelstreifenhose (lit.: "die mit [weißer] Kreide angemalte Hose"; cf. il gesso = die Kreide); pinstripe trousers (lit.: "chalked trousers”)
  • un parente acquisito = ein angeheirateter Verwandter (lit.: "ein erworbener Verwandter"); an in-law (relative) (lit.: "an acquired relative”)
  • prezzi salati gesalzene / gepfefferte Preise (similar to German); steep prices (lit.: "salted prices”)
  • la scala a chiocciola = die Wendeltreppe (lit.: "die Schneckentreppe / schnecken­förmige Treppe"); spiral stairs (lit.: "snail stairs”)
  • un sole da spaccare le pietre = eine gleißende / unbarmherzig brennende / stark brennende Sonne (lit.: "eine Sonne zum Steine Spalten”); a blazing / blistering sun (lit.: “a sun that smashes / splits the stones into pieces”)
  • l’uovo strapazzato = das Rührei (lit.: "das misshandelte / strapazierte Ei"); scrambled eggs (lit.: "a mistreated egg”)
  • il vicolo cieco = die Sackgasse (lit.: "die blinde Gasse"); a dead-end street (lit.: "a blind street”)
  • lo zucchero a velo = der Puderzucker (lit.: "der Schleierzucker"); icing sugar (British) / confectioners' sugar or powdered sugar (American) (lit.: "veil sugar”)

Presentations

The project team members have presented the project at various meetings and academic conferences. In addition, they have also given several general talks and lectures on “collocations” and “phraseologisms” that were closely linked with the project and also explained its theoretical framework.

Conference presentations

Konecny, Christine (2007): "Le collocazioni lessicali - proposta per una classificazione semantica." Presentation at the "XXV. Congrès International de Linguistique et Philologie Romanes (= CILPR 2007)" (Section "Description historique et contrastive des langues romanes: sémantique paradigmatique, syntagmatique, cognitive; phraséologie / collocation"), Innsbruck, 2007/09/03-08. (Congress website; Website "Société de Linguistique Romane")

Konecny, Christine (2008): "Frequenz: ein zuverlässiges Kriterium zur Erschließung von (fachsprachlichen) Kollokationen?" Presentation at the "International Conference 'Europhras 2008’” on the topic "Phraseology: global - areal - regional" (Workshop "Les collocations dans les discours spécialisés"), Helsinki, 2008/08/13-16. (Workshop program; Europhras website)

Konecny, Christine (2008): "Divergenze e convergenze in collocazioni lessicali italiane e tedesche." Presentation at the "VI. Internationale Arbeitstagung zum romanisch-deutschen und innerromanischen Sprachvergleich" (Section "Kontrastive Phraseologie"), Innsbruck, 2008/09/03-05. (Conference program)

Konecny, Christine (2010): "Von 'eingepflanzten' Nägeln zu 'hinuntergeschluckten' Tränen und 'jungfräulichen' DVDs. Die Konzeptualisierung von Wissen in referentiell äquivalenten italienischen und deutschen Kollokationen und deren lexikographische Repräsentation." Presentation at the "XXVI. Forum Junge Romanistik (= FJR 2010)" on the topic "Repräsentationsformen von Wissen", Bochum, 2010/05/26-29. (Conference website)

Konecny, Christine (2010): "Von 'hinkenden' Stühlen, 'tanzenden' Zähnen und 'verlorenen' Verkehrsmitteln. Erfassung und Darstellung italienischer lexikalischer Kollokationen für deutschsprachige L2-Lerner (auf der Grundlage des Dizionario di base della lingua italiana - DIB)." Presentation at the "XIV. Euralex International Congress", Leeuwarden / Ljouwert, 2010/07/06-10. (Congress website; Congress program; Euralex website)

Konecny, Christine (2010): "Siehst du den 'tanzenden' Zahn? Memorisieren lexikalischer Kollokationen des Italienischen als L2-Sprache mit Hilfe einer erweiterten keyword-Methode." Presentation at the "5. Tagung der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Sprachendidaktik (ÖGSD)" on the topic "Sprachen lernen: Kompetenzen entwickeln - Performanzen (über)prüfen" (Section "Kompetenzentwicklung, Performanzüberprüfung, Sprachstandmessung"), Innsbruck, 2010/09/23-25. (Website ÖGSD)

Konecny, Christine (2010): "Da chiodi 'piantati' a DVD 'vergini' e lacrime 'inghiottite'. Insegnamento e rappresentazione lessicografica di collocazioni lessicali italiane per apprendenti tedescofoni (sulla base del DIB - Dizionario di base della lingua italiana)." Presentation at the "XLIV. Congresso Internazionale di Studi della Società di Linguistica Italiana (SLI)" on the topics "Linguistica educativa / Lessico e Lessicologia" (Section "Lessico e Lessicologia"), Viterbo, 2010/09/27-29. (Website SLI)

Konecny, Christine (2011): "Wirf' mal einen Blick darauf... / Dacci un'occhiata... Zu interlingualen Abweichungen in italienischen und deutschen Funktionsverbgefügen und deren Relevanz für die Translationsdidaktik und die translatologische Praxis." Presentation at the "1st International Conference TRANSLATA (= TRANSLATA 2011)" on the topic "Translation & Interpreting Research: Yesterday - Today - Tomorrow" (Section "Cross Linguistics - Translation"), Innsbruck, 2011/05/12-14. (Conference website; Conference program)

Konecny, Christine; Konzett, Carmen (2011): "Wortschatzlernen ist Sprach- und Kulturmittlung. Lexemkombinationen und kontrastive Wortschatzdidaktik im mehrsprachigen Unterricht." Presentation at the "XXXII. Romanistentag" on the topic "Romanistik im Dialog" (Section "Die 'neue' Kompetenz Sprachmittlung - eine Herausforderung für die Didaktik der romanischen Sprachen und Literaturen"), Berlin, 2011/09/25-28. (Conference website; Section program; Website "Deutscher Romanisten­verband")

Konecny, Christine (2012): "Das Projekt eines neuen italienisch-deutschen Kollokationswörterbuches und sein innovativer Beitrag zur bilingualen Lernerlexikografie." Presentation at the International Conference “Lessico e lessici a confronto: metodi, strumenti e nuove prospettive" (Section "Tedesco"), Verona, 2012/02/02-03. (Conference program)

Autelli, Erica (2012): "Creare un dizionario bilingue con aiuti visivi per individuare le diverse concettualizzazioni dell’italiano e del tedesco." Presentation at the "Kolloquium 'Limes VIII' für Promovierende und Promovierte der romanischen Sprachwissenschaft", Tübingen, 2012/03/15-17. (Conference website)

Konecny, Christine (2012): "Unikale Lexeme - 'Spuren' der Diachronie in der Synchronie? Eine Analyse anhand ausgewählter italienischer Phraseologismen." Presentation at the "XXVIII. Forum Junge Romanistik (= FJR 2012)" on the topic "Spuren.Suche (in) der Romania", Graz, 2012/04/18-21. (Conference website; Conference program; Book of abstracts)

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine (2012): "Creating a bilingual learner's dictionary of Italian and German collocations: strategies and methods for searching, selecting and representing collocations on the basis of a learner-oriented, semantic-conceptual approach." Presentation at the "15th Euralex International Congress", Oslo, 2012/08/07-11. (Euralex website)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Learning Italian phrasemes through their conceptualisations." Presentation at the "International Conference 'Europhras 2012’” on the topic "Phraseology and Culture", Maribor, 2012/08/26-31. (Conference website; Conference program; Europhras website)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Scale ripide, mobili e a chiocciola - steile, Roll- und Wendeltreppen. Diverse categorie di combinazioni lessicali italiane del tipo 'N + Agg o SPrep' e i loro equivalenti tedeschi - un confronto interlinguistico." Presentation at the "VII. Internationale Arbeitstagung zum romanisch-deutschen und innerromanischen Sprachvergleich" (Section "Kontrastive Phraseologie"), Innsbruck, 2012/09/05-08. (Conference website; Conference program)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Polysemie, Valenz und Kollokationen in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie Italienisch-Deutsch. Plädoyer für ein integriertes, dynamisches Repräsentationsmodell auf lernerorientierter und semantisch-kognitiver Basis." Presentation at the GAL Congress 2012 on the topic "Wörter - Wissen - Wörterbücher" (Symposium "Zweisprachige Lexikographie im Spannungsfeld zwischen Translation und Didaktik"), Erlangen, 2012/09/18-21. (Congress website; Congress program; Book of abstracts; Website "Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik [GAL]”)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): “Combining Lexicography with Second-Language Didactics: The Case of the Bilingual Collocations Dictionary Kollokationen Italienisch-Deutsch.” Plenary presentation at the congress “X Anniversary School on Lexicography «Life beyond Dictionaries»”, Florence, 2013/09/12-14. (Conference websiteConference program)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): “Tra fissità fraseologica e valenza: un’analisi contrastiva di combinazioni lessicali italiane e tedesche.” Presentation within the workshop “Fraseologismi dell’italiano: aspetti lessicologici e lessicografici nel confronto interlinguistico” at the “XLVII Congresso Internazionale di Studi della Società di Linguistica Italiana (SLI 2013)”, Salerno, 2013/09/26-28. (Website SLI)

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine (2013): “Assegnare fraseologismi ai livelli di competenza del QCER: un’impresa (im)possibile? Un’investigazione basata su esempi italiani e tedeschi.” Presentation within the workshop “Fraseologismi dell’italiano: aspetti lessicologici e lessicografici nel confronto interlinguistico” at the “XLVII Congresso Internazionale di Studi della Società di Linguistica Italiana (SLI 2013)”, Salerno, 2013/09/26-28. (Website SLI)

Guest lectures

Konecny, Christine (2009): "Le collocazioni lessicali - una sfida linguistica (parte 1): riflessioni preliminari, delimitazione verso altre categorie sintagmatiche e implicazioni didattiche, tipologia morfo-sintattica e tipologia semantica." Guest lecture at the “Università degli Studi di Bergamo” as part of the Erasmus Teaching Staff Mobility program, December 2009.

Konecny, Christine (2009): "Le collocazioni lessicali - una sfida linguistica (parte 2): confronto interlinguistico (italiano - tedesco), implicazioni lessicografiche e prospettive sociolinguistiche." Guest lecture at the "Università degli Studi di Bergamo" as part of the Erasmus Teaching Staff Mobility program, December 2009.

Konecny, Christine (2013): “Tipi di combinazioni di parole, il loro uso e proposte per il loro insegnamento.” Advanced training course for teachers of Italian at the Department for German Schools of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen - South Tyrol, Bolzano, 2013/04/08-09.

Konecny, Christine (2014): “Kollokationen und Möglichkeiten ihrer didaktischen Aufbereitung: Überlegungen aus semantischer, sprachkontrastiver und lexikographischer Perspektive.” Guest lecture at the University of Stuttgart, 2014/01/07.

Konecny, Christine (2014): “Was hilft gegen ‘hinkende’ Stühle und ‘tanzende’ Zähne?” (= “What helps against ‘limping’ chairs and ‘dancing’ teeth”?) Presentation at the library Landesbibliothek "Dr. Friedrich Teßmann", in cooperation with and organized by the “Sprachstelle” at the "Südtiroler Kulturinstitut", Bolzano, 2014/03/2014. (Link "Landesbibliothek 'Dr. Friedrich Teßmann'”Link “Südtiroler Kulturinstitut”;  Announcement in German; Announcement in Italian)

Presentations and workshops at public events and schools

Konecny, Christine (2009): “Welche Wortverbindungen sind typisch für das Italienische im Vergleich zum Deutschen?” Interactive presentation with workshop at the "Aktionstag 'Junge Uni 2009’” (Young University), University of Innsbruck, 2009/11/06. (Website “Junge Uni” [Young University])

Konecny, Christine (2009): "Was unterscheidet deutsche und italienische Wortverbindungen?" Interactive presentation with workshop at the "Lange Nacht der Forschung 2009” ("Long Night of Research”), University of Innsbruck, 2009/11/07. (Workshop description)

Konecny, Christine; Konzett, Carmen; Mussner, Marlene (2010): "Was ihr immer schon über Sprachen wissen wolltet... sprachliche Bilderwelt: Zeichnen von Wortverbindungen (z.B. Redewendungen, Sprichwörter)." Interactive presentation with workshop at the "Aktionstag 'Junge Uni 2010’" (Young University), University of Innsbruck, 2010/11/05. (Website “Junge Uni” [Young University]; iPoint article “Feuerwerk der Sprachen”)

Konecny, Christine; Konzett, Carmen: (2011): "Von 'tanzenden' Zähnen und 'eingepflanzten’ Nägeln." Presentation with workshop “KünstlerKinder”, 2011/01/22. (Weblink “Jugendland-KünstlerKinder”)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2011): "Modi di dire italiani." Presentation with workshop at the primary school "Volksschule Innere Stadt" as part of the pilot project “German-Italian bilingual primary school”, Innsbruck, 2011/11/27.

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2011): "Vokabellernen - wie? Tipps und Tricks für sinnvolles Vokabellernen einer Fremdsprache anhand des Italienischen." Interactive presentation with workshop at the "Aktionstage 'Junge Uni 2011’” (Young University), University of Innsbruck, 2011/11/04-05. (Website “Junge Uni” [Young University]; Report on the artwork competition in the annual report of the Young University 2011, p. 37)

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine (2011): "Benvenuti in Italia - Come parlano gli italiani?" Presentation with workshop at the middle school "Neue Mittelschule Königsweg", Reutte, 2011/12/19. (Report on the school's website)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Combinazioni di parole italiane e le loro traduzioni in tedesco." Presentation with workshop at the primary school "Volksschule Innere Stadt" as part of the pilot project “German-Italian bilingual primary school”, Innsbruck, 2012/02/23.

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "‘Pacchetti’ di parole prefabbricati - un paragone tra italiano e tedesco." Presentation with workshop at the middle school "Neue Mittelschule Dr. Fritz Prior", Innsbruck, 2012/03/08-09.

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): “Warum funktionieren wörtliche Übersetzungen in eine Fremdsprache (z.B. Italienisch) oft nicht?” Interactive presentation with workshop at the "Tiroler Nacht der Forschung, Bildung und Innovation 2012” ("Tyrolean Night of Research, Education and Innovation”), University of Innsbruck, 2012/04/28. (Website "Tiroler Nacht der Forschung, Bildung und Innovation"Workshop description)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): “Italienische Vokabeln und Wortverbindungen spielerisch erlernen.” Presentation with workshop at the high school "Bundesrealgymnasium in der Au", Innsbruck, 2012/05/24.

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): “Le collocazioni nel linguaggio quotidiano: differenze tra italiano e tedesco.” Presentation with workshop at the vocational high school "HLW Reutte", 2012/06/25. (Report on the school's website)

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine (2012): “Italienische Phraseologismen und ihre Bildlichkeit: Imparare fraseologismi italiani attraverso la visualizzazione delle immagini mentali da loro evocate.” Presentation with workshop at the middle school "Neue Mittelschule Königsweg", Reutte, 2012/06/26. (Report on the school's website)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): “Pensare ‘all’italiana’ con l’aiuto di disegni.” Presentation with workshop at the high school "Bundesrealgymnasium Adolf-Pichler-Platz", Innsbruck, 2013/01/23, 2013/01/30.

Autelli, Erica (2013): “Imparare fraseologismi italiani e tedeschi tramite le loro visualizzazioni - un interscambio tra alunni italiani e austriaci.” Presentation with workshop at the middle school “Stams-Rietz", Stams, 2013/04/18. (Report on the school's website)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013): “Italienisch-Deutsches Wörterbuch der Wortverbindungen: Seine Entstehung, sein Aufbau und wie du mit einer Zeichnung (noch) Teil davon werden kannst!” Interactive presentation with workshop at the “Junge Uni 2013” (= Young University Day), University of Innsbruck, 2013/11/22-23.

Autelli, Erica (2013): “Come far parte di un dizionario bilingue con un tuo disegno.” Presentation with workshop at the “NMS Stams-Rietz” middle school, Stams, 2013/12/16.

Presentations within the “Linguistics Work Group” at the University of Innsbruck

Konecny, Christine (2006): "Was sind eigentlich Kollokationen?" Presentation within the "Linguistics Work Group" at the University of Innsbruck, October 2006.

Konecny, Christine (2008): "Kollokationen - Versuch einer semantisch-begrifflichen Annäherung und Klassifizierung anhand des Italienischen." Presentation within the "Linguistics Work Group" at the University of Innsbruck, May 2008.

Konecny, Christine (2011): Präsentation der Monographie "Kollokationen", der Aktivitäten zu Kollokationen und Phraseologismen im Bereich Öffentlichkeitsarbeit (z.B. Aktionstage "Junge Uni", Lange Nacht der Forschung, uni.com - Wissen für kids) sowie des Forschungsprojektes "Von 'hinkenden' Stühlen, 'tanzenden' Zähnen und 'verlorenen' Verkehrsmitteln". Presentation within the "Linguistics Work Group" at the University of Innsbruck, April 2011.

Interviews

Konecny, Christine (2011): Interview by Barbara Daser with Christine Konecny on the activities and workshops on Italian locutions at the event “Junge Uni”; broadcast on ORF-Radio Ö1, radio show “Wissen aktuell”, segment “Junge Uni Innsbruck wird 10 Jahre alt” [=> podcast “Wissen aktuell (November 11, 2011)”, segment starts at 2 min 41 sec], 2011/11/03.

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2011): Interview by Benedikt Sauer with Christine Konecny and Erica Autelli on the research project “Von ‘hinkenden’ Stühlen, ‘tanzenden’ Zähnen und ‘verlorenen’ Verkehrsmitteln”, broadcast by radio “RAI Bozen”, 2011/11/04.

Konecny, Christine (2014): “Wie man im Deutschen und Italienischen die richtige Wortverbindung findet (Interview mit Monika Obrist).” In: Sprach_info – Informationen der Sprachstelle im Südtiroler Kulturinstitut, Nr. 19, January 2014, 2-4.  (Link “Südtiroler Kulturinstitut”)

Konecny, Christine (2014): “Pulcinellas Geheimnis … oder: Wortverbindung im Deutschen und Italienischen im Vergleich (Christine Konecny im Gespräch mit Monika Obrist).” In: ein//blick – Das Magazin des Südtiroler Kulturinstituts, Nr. 40, February 2014, 20-22.  (Link “Südtiroler Kulturinstitut”)

Konecny, Christine (2014): Radio interview by Petra Farkas with Christine Konecny about collocations and the research project “‘Limping’ chairs, ‘dancing’ teeth and ‘lost’ busses”. In: Tele Radio Vinschgau, Inforubrik, 2014/04/14 (13.10-13.30). (Link Tele Radio Vinschgaulisten to Tele Radio Vinschgau online)

Learner’s dictionary

Book publication: The Italian collocations are being collected in a specially built database and will be published as a learner's dictionary in 2015 with the publisher Verlag Helmut Buske (Hamburg).

Selection of the lemmas and collocations: We have decided to base our choice of which Italian collocations to include in our learner's dictionary on structural criteria: only those collocations with a noun base will be included (i.e. syntactic types 1-4 listed under What we mean by collocation”). The number of bases (which is also the number of lemmas in our learner's dictionary) is currently limited to some 900-1100 nouns that can be found in the basic vocabulary in the Dizionario di base della lingua italiana (DIB) by De Mauro / Moroni (1996). The project team will decide on a case-by-case basis whether or not a lexical combination is to be classified as a collocation (though in general, in order to qualify a combination as a collocation it must fit into one of the 5 semantic collocation types listed under “What we mean by collocation”).

Reference work and learning tool: The learner's dictionary is meant to be used as a reference book, but is also intended for use as an L2 learning / teaching tool. Since the collocations will be laid out in two parallel columns (with Italian on the left and the German equivalents on the right), learners can use the book to test themselves by covering one half of the page to see what they have already learned / already know.

Illustrations: In order to bring certain collocations to life and make them easier to memorize, we will include drawings produced by children and young adults in the book. These images were drawn in Tyrol during various public relations events and in cooperation with several schools in Tyrol (see “Illustrations”).

Organization of the dictionary: Within an entry, collocations will be arranged by morpho-syntactical type (1-4); within these types, collocations will be sorted alphabetically by collocator. One particular focus is on raising learners' awareness of the differences between the German and Italian collocations, thus maximizing the learning effect:

  • To reinforce the mental image behind an Italian collocation (in the case of a polysemous collocator), a literal translation into German (based on the basic, literal meaning of the Italian collocator) will be included in brackets and quotation marks. This should underline how error-prone trying to translate collocations literally from Italian into German (and vice versa) can be; e.g. il dente balla ‘the tooth is loose / wiggly / wobbly’, lit. “the tooth is dancing”.
  • Each collocation will include an example sentence (with a German translation) to make its use in a concrete context clear. Great care will be taken to ensure that these examples are not artificial or contrived but common, and attractive in terms of content. Authentic examples will be found using Google, checked and modified if need be by our Italian native speaker Erica Autelli, and then translated into German by Christine Konecny.
  • If a collocation can occur in several structural types, these will be merged to form one entry, e.g. otturare (also: piombare) un dente / un dente otturato (also: piombato) ‘to get a filling’ / ‘a tooth with a filling’.
  • If there are several alternative collocators, these will be listed in brackets, e.g. levare un dente ‘to pull a tooth’, also: cavare, estirpare, estrarre, strappare, togliere un dente.
  • In a given entry, dictionary users will not only find the collocators of a specific base, but also references to other bases connected with a specific collocator; e.g. the entry piantare i denti (nella mano a/di qcn.) ‘to bite / to sink one's teeth into (sb.'s hand)’ will have a reference to the entry chiodo, where learners will find the collocation piantare un chiodo ‘to drive / hammer in a nail’.
  • If two (or more) collocators are antonyms (have opposite meanings), these will also be listed under a single entry (with the marker “VS.” for ‘versus’): e.g. il dente aguzzo (also: affilato) VS. il dente ottuso ‘sharp tooth’ VS. ‘blunt tooth’.
  • In certain cases, entries may also include information on the frequency and register of a collocation, e.g. if a certain collocation is rare [selten], particularly colloquial / slangy [ugs.], or used only in a pejorative / derogatory sense [pej.]. However, these annotations are by no means exhaustive or comprehensive.

Preview: Here is a preview of the entry for the lemma dente ('tooth') in our dictionary (click on the entry and zoom in for higher resolution):

Team

The members of our project team are:

(1) Researchers:

  • Christine Konecny (project head and researcher)
  • Erica Autelli (researcher)

Christine Konecny has been a researcher and teacher specializing in “Italian linguistics” at the University of Innsbruck, Department of Romance Languages since 2002. She finished her postdoctoral lecture qualification (Habilitation) in 2015, and since the same year she has been an associate professor. Christine Konecny has gained extensive experience in the field of phraseology, and in the area of collocation research in particular: Her dissertation “Kollokationen. Versuch einer semantisch-begrifflichen Annäherung und Klassifizierung anhand italienischer Beispiele” ("Collocations: A semantic-conceptual attempt at a definition and classification, illustrated with examples from Italian"), which she submitted in 2007 and published in 2010, won the award “Preis der Landeshauptstadt Innsbruck für wissenschaftliche Forschung an der Universität Innsbruck 2008” and the prestigeous “Premio Giovanni Nencioni 2012” of the Accademia della Crusca, among others. In it, Konecny examines the characteristics of these typical lexeme combinations and other fixed word combinations. Moreover, she has also published several articles about collocations (from a semantic-cognitive, didactic, contrastive and lexicographical point of view). Her particular interest in didactic aspects of language - how to convey linguistic awareness and insights in a school or university context - stem in part from having studied Latin and Italian for a teaching degree, and from her experience as a trainee teacher at two high schools in Innsbruck in 2008/09. Besides phraseology, collocations and foreign language didactics, her research interests include semantics, lexicology, lexicography, cognitive and contrastive linguistics, language teaching and learning, and syntax.

Link: Personal Homepage (Christine Konecny)

Erica Autelliborn in Genoa (Liguria, Italy), studied English and Italian (her native language) for a teaching degree (Lehramt) at the University of Innsbruck. After graduating with honors in 2009, Autelli completed her year of teacher training at the Handelsakademie Innsbruck (a high school with a focus on business and commerce), and continues to work as a school teacher (currently at the Neue Mittelschule Stams-Rietz). In autumn 2012, she also worked in adult education for the “Società Dante Alighieri di Innsbruck”. She began her doctorate in Italian linguistics at the Department for Romance Languages in 2009 and joined the collocations project as a research assistant in 2011. She has since managed to initiate and establish numerous cooperations within the project, and has given several talks at schools, public relations events and at academic conferences, together with Christine Konecny. Starting from March 2013, Erica Autelli is also collaborating on a further project at the University of Innsbruck, Department of Romance Languages, funded by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen - South Tyrol: LeKo - Lexemkombinationen und typisierte Rede im mehrsprachigen Kontext. Authentische Sprachdaten für die Erarbeitung didaktischer Materialien zur italienischen Wortkombinatorik für deutschsprachige  L2-Lerner (see "News”). In the 2012/13 winter semester, she also co-taught a class with Christine Konecny on teaching and learning phraseologisms at the “Bereich Didaktik der Sprachen” (DiS, University of Innsbruck). For her dissertation on “Il Genovese Poetico attraverso i Secoli” (‘Genoese in Poetry through the Centuries’) she received several grants, including a doctoral stipend from the Vice-Rectory for Research of the University of Innsbruck in the years 2011 and 2012. She has also won an appreciation award at the awards ceremony of the Premio Ciävai 2011” (Chiavari, Genova) for her work in augmenting the value of Genovese in December of 2011 and an award from the “Richard & Emmy Bahr-Stiftung in Schaffhausen” in November 2012. Her research interests include dialectology, interjections, phraseology and collocations, con­trastive linguistics, language didactics and lexicography.

LinkCurriculum vitae (Erica Autelli)

(2) External member:
  • Niko Hofinger (database, homepage, technical support; external contract)

Niko Hofinger is head of the Innsbruck-based software and service provider “AltNeuland Bildschirmwerkstatt”. An expert for IT and multimedia, he has accumulated years of experience working with numerous research projects in various scientific fields at the University of Innsbruck. For this project, among other things, he has created an HTML-based database to collect and analyze our collocations. Mr. Hofinger has also published a number of academic articles in the field of contemporary history. Thanks to his academic background, he brings with him the know-how and understanding for research in the humanities and linguistics that are so important to this project.

Link: "AltNeuland Bildschirmwerkstatt" (Niko Hofinger)

Contact

Postal and e-mail addresses:
Assoz. Prof. Mag. Dr. Christine Konecny
Universität Innsbruck, Institut für Romanistik
Innrain 52 d, A-6020 Innsbruck (AUSTRIA)
E-Mail: Christine.Konecny@uibk.ac.at
 
Mag. Erica Autelli
Universität Innsbruck, Institut für Romanistik
Innrain 52 d, A-6020 Innsbruck (AUSTRIA)
E-Mail: Erica.Autelli@uibk.ac.at
 
Website Credits

Content editors: Dr. Christine Konecny and Mag. Erica Autelli

Texts and translation: German texts and Italian translation: Dr. Christine Konecny and Mag. Erica Autelli; English translation: Mag. Kathrin Oberhofer

Design, programming and layout: Niko Hofinger (technical support), Dr. Christine Konecny and Mag. Erica Autelli

Header image: © Dipl.-Ing. Johannes Gomille, 2009 (taken from the cover of the monograph Kollokationen by Christine Konecny, 2010)

Disclaimer: Our site contains links to external sites. Although we make every effort to check and evaluate it, we are not responsible for the content of such third-party sites; it is the responsibility of the respective owners / providers.

Copyright: The content of this website (written and published by the authors Dr. Christine Konecny and Mag. Erica Autelli) is protected by copyright. Its purpose is to provide information and to support academic / scientific research. Academic, non-commercial use of this site’s content is permitted; should you wish to cite it or refer to it in a publication (online, electronic, printed or other), please follow common academic citation guidelines and cite this website (the source) as follows:

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2012): "Italian collocations. Comparing word combinations in Italian and German. A research project." In: http://www.kollokation.at/en/ (date of access, date last updated).