Tag Archives: Phraseology

Glossary

Collocation (derived from Latin collocatio [con + locare ‘put together / side by side’]) [=> see "What we mean by collocation"]: According to a narrow, semantic definition, collocations are specific types of phraseologisms that fall somewhere between free word combinations on the one side and idiomatic expressions (e.g. fixed idioms) on the other. Collocations are thus neither "freely" combinable, nor fully idiomaticized. This is why they are often referred to as "semi-fixed". Typically, they are binary word combinations that are made up of two parts: the so-called base and the so-called collocator. The base is hierarchically higher than the collocator (in other words, the choice of collocator is always dependent on the base). The base word is usually used in its literal sense, while the meaning of the collocator within the collocation can be different from the word's basic or literal meaning. The collocator is thus the "unpredictable" half of the pair, the part that may differ from language to language, and the part that foreign language learners often don't know, get wrong or have to look up. For instance, in the collocations piantare un chiodo (‘hammer / drive [lit. “plant”] a nail into a wall’), la lezione salta (‘the lesson is cancelled [lit. “jumps”]’), and un CD / DVD vergine (‘a blank [lit. “virginal”] CD / DVD’), the nouns chiodo, lezione and CD / DVD are the bases, and the verbs piantare and saltare and the adjective vergine are the collocators.

Collocational range: This term refers to the sum of all words (lexemes) with which a specific word can enter into a lexical combination. If a word can be combined with a large number of other words, it has a large / broad collocational range (e.g. profondo ‘deep’, mangiare ‘eat’). If it can only be combined with few words, it has a narrow collocational range (e.g. commettere can only be used in combination with a few nouns that have negative connotations, such as reato ‘crime’, omicidio ‘murder’, furto ‘theft’ etc.). A very few lexemes even have a so-called “unique” or maximally restricted collocational range, such as scozzare, which can practically only be used with le carte (‘(playing) cards’) to mean 'to shuffle the cards'.

Conceptualization:  The term denotes the particular “angle” or “perspective” a language takes when considering a specific object. The conceptualization forms a sort of “bridge” between the mental image / concept and the linguistic form used to express it, highlighting a specific aspect of the object. Conceptualization is often different from one language to another. The German Handtuch lit. “hand-cloth” is thus a cloth / towel intended for hands, while the Italian asciugamano is simply ‘something which dries the hands’; the function of the object is thus foregrounded to a much greater degree in Italian (asciugare = ‘to dry’, mano = ‘hand’). In some cases, conceptualizations can be similar or even identical across languages, as in ammazzare il tempo - die Zeit totschlagen - to kill time (in German lit. “to beat to death”).

Free word combination: a grouping of two or more words that can be combined (more or less) “freely”, though always within the limits of certain semantic minimal rules (so-called “selectional restrictions”). For instance, the verb mangiare (‘to eat’) can be combined with una mela (‘an apple’), un panino (‘a sandwich’) or una pizza (‘a pizza’), but not with un tavolo (‘a table’), since the latter not generally considered edible. However, this degree of “freedom” can vary greatly. It is therefore impossible to draw a clear line between free lexical combinations and collocations.

Glottodidactics (also: (foreign) language didactics; derived from Ancient Greek glotta ‘language’ and didáskein ‘teach’): Glottodidactics are a field of study concerned with the theory and practice of teaching and learning foreign languages or languages in general.

Idiom (also: idiomatic expression, figure of speech; derived from Ancient Greek idíōma ‘special phrasing’): An idiom is a phrase or lexical combination whose overall meaning cannot be derived or understood from the meanings of its parts. For instance, even if we can understand the literal meaning of the Italian idiom cadere dalla padella nella brace, lit. “fall from the pan into the blaze” (similar to the English equivalent “out of the frying pan into the fire”), we wouldn't necessarily arrive at the implied idiomatic meaning of ‘things going from bad to worse’ or ‘escaping one bad situation only to find oneself in an even worse one’. This does not mean that idioms have no motivation, or that the motivation is always opaque or lost over time. In many cases, the original motivation of an idiom is easy to recognize, e.g. in alzare il gomito (‘have a few [drinks] too many’, lit. “lift the elbow”), since people typically lift their elbow when draining a glass or a bottle (containing alcohol). The same is true for avere le mani di pastafrolla (‘to be clumsy / all thumbs’, lit. “to have hands made of dough”).

Lemma (from Ancient Greek lemma ‘premise’, ‘assumption’): the canonical form, citation form or headword of a set of words; i.e. the heading under which you would find a specific word (lexeme) in a dictionary or book of reference. For example the entry / lemma andare (‘to go’) includes other forms of the same verb, e.g. vado (‘I go’), andato (‘gone’) or andando (‘going’).

Lexeme combination (also: lexical combination; cf. Ancient Greek léxis ‘word’): the linguistic term for a combination of two or more words (lexemes), which are rigid / fixed to a greater or lesser degree. The types range from free word combinations (which are unfixed or hardly fixed), to collocations (semi-fixed) to idioms (strongly fixed). Deciding whether such a word group is a phraseologism (phraseme) is difficult and depends very strongly on the definition of phraseologism. The term "lexeme combination" is more neutral and less specific, since it encompasses all types of word combinations, even free ones.

Lexicalized metaphor: Most of us know metaphors as the kind of “flowery” language, “verbal images” and “figures of speech” found in literature or poetry. Once a metaphor has entered into common use (i.e. most speakers of a language are familiar with it; it is not created on the spot by an individual author or in a specific situation), it is called a “lexicalized metaphor”. Metaphors play an important part in the changing meaning of words over the course of history, and contribute considerably to the development of polysemy (one word with several meanings). For instance, the collocation covare una malattia (‘to incubate a disease’ / ‘to be coming down with something’) came about through the metaphoric use of the verb derived from covare le uova (‘to hatch / incubate eggs’) (concrete -> abstract). Today, this former metaphor is lexicalized, and the word covare in the sense of ‘incubate [a disease]’ can be found in dictionaries. Native speakers often don’t even recognize lexicalized metaphors as metaphors, but foreign language learners have to consciously learn polysemous words and lexicalized metaphoric use of words.

Lexicography: a practically oriented subfield of linguistics dedicated to compiling and writing dictionaries and similar reference works. The more theoretical scholarly discipline of metalexicography focuses on the scientific analysis of existing dictionaries and the concept of dictionaries in general.

Motivation: This term refers to the semantic transparency of linguistic signs and units, i.e. whether one can tell what a word (combination) means just from the way it sounds or looks. With most single linguistic signs (e.g. words), the connection with their meaning is arbitrary (for instance, there is no good reason why a particular animal is called dog in English, cane in Italian and Hund in German). Lexical combinations, however, are always (at least initially) motivated in some way or other and characterized by a specific conceptualization. Motivation in synchronous language usage is only given in those cases where the meaning of a lexical unit can be understood on the basis of its form and of the speakers’ knowledge of the world (cf. the semantically transparent collocations listed under Examples”). Sometimes, however, the original motivation has been lost over the course of history and is no longer obvious in the present. One such example is stipulare un contratto (‘seal a contract’ or ‘to stipulate’), which is derived from the Latin word stípula or ‘straw’: in Ancient Rome, it was customary to seal a contract by breaking a straw in half.

Phraseology and phraseologisms (also: phrasemes): Phraseology is the subfield of linguistics that studies phraseologisms / phrasemes (e.g. set expressions or set phrases). There are broad and narrow views both of phrasemes and phraseology. In a more narrow notion of the terms, phraseology deals only with true idioms, i.e. the kind of lexical combinations whose overall meaning cannot be understood from the meaning of its parts. A broader definition also considers other types of fixed word combinations as phrasemes, including collocations, routine formulae (e.g. Quanti anni hai? - How old are you?), and proverbs (Chi fa da sé fa per tre. - If you want something done (right), do it yourself).

Polysemy (derived from Ancient Greek polýs ‘many’ / ‘several’ and séma ‘sign’) means the capacity of a linguistic sign to have several meanings, which is typically found at word (lexeme) level. A word is considered polysemous if it has two or more meanings that share an etymological and semantic connection. The most basic meaning of the Italian word spina is ‘thorn’; in a derived meaning however, based on a metonymic cause-effect relationship, the word can also mean ‘an intense / stabbing pain’. That is why in a dictionary you will typically find the various meanings of a polysemous word under a single lemma (entry). In collocations, polysemy plays an important role, particularly with verbs and adjectives as collocators, since these word types are often polysemous and have taken on a metaphorical use, as in abbracciare una professione ‘take up a career / profession’, lit. “to embrace / hug a career / profession”, or in una curva cieca ‘a blind curve’. Since polysemy is distributed very differently depending on the language, collocational range, verbal imagery and collocations also differ strongly from language to language.

Semi-idiomatic collocations (also: semi-idioms, partially idiomatic collocations, partial idioms) [=> see "What we mean by collocation"]: In this type of collocations, the collocator is idiomatized, such as in the collocation un numero verde ‘a (toll)free [lit. “green”] (phone) number’. However, since the base is not used idiomatically (numero = ‘(phone) number’), this type of lexical combination is only partially idiomatic, and thus cannot be considered as fully idiomatic; it is still a collocation because at least one part of the combination is used in its literal sense and the overall meaning can still be derived from the meanings of its parts. Some semi-idioms show an “unusual collocational syntax”, as is the case with divertirsi un mondo (‘to be highly diverted / amused / to have a wonderful time’, lit. “to be a world amused”). In this case, divertirsi is the base because it is the part that can be understood literally, while the modal adverb un mondo is an idiomatically used collocator.

Stretched verb construction (SVC; also: light verb construction): This type of word combination is sometimes seen as a specific type of collocation, and sometimes seen as separate. These constructions consist of a verb + direct object (e.g. fare / porre una domanda - ask a question; prendere una decisione - make a decision) or of a verb + prepositional phrase (e.g. mettere a disposizione - to put (sth.) at (sb.’s) disposal, prendere in considerazione - to consider sth. / take sth. into consideration). SVCs’ distinguishing feature is that the verb mainly conveys grammatical information while the main semantic information is carried by the noun. A SVC is therefore often the synonym of a simple verb, with little difference in the connotative meaning (e.g. fare una domanda - domandare, prendere una decisione - decidere).

Links

Funding institution/s: Press and media: Project publications available online: Websites of the University of Innsbruck and of project team members: Cooperating schools: Further cooperating partners: Publisher (Book publication of the learner's dictionary): Scientific associations relevant to the project (selection): Other projects and initiatives on collocations and phraseologisms: Italian and German web corpora (selection): Online bibliographies on the topics of phraseology and lexicography: Selection of publications on collocations, phraseologisms and lexicography available online:

Publications

Monograph

Konecny, Christine (2010): Kollokationen. Versuch einer semantisch-begrifflichen Annäherung und Klassifizierung anhand italienischer Beispiele. München: Martin Meidenbauer [Forum Sprachwissenschaften; 8], 724 pages.

[ISBN: 978-3-89975-711-8]

(More information; Table of Contents; Book flyer; Publisher's website "Martin Meidenbauer"; Publisher's website "Peter Lang")

Awards and prizes received for the monograph / the dissertation:

Book reviews:

 
Editorship

Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (eds.) (2013): Phraseologie im Sprachunterricht und in der Sprachendidaktik / Phraseology in language teaching and in language didactics. Maribor: Mednarodna založba Oddelka za slovanske jezike in književnosti, Filozofska fakulteta [Zora; 94], 173 pages.

[ISBN: 978-961-6930-02-4]
(More information about the book; More information about the series "Zora")  
Book reviews:
 

Chapters in edited volumes and conference proceedings

Konecny, Christine (2010a): "Lexikalische Kollokationen und der Beitrag der Internet-Suchmaschine Google zu ihrer Erschließung und Beschreibung." In: Ptashnyk, Stefaniya; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Bubenhofer, Noah (eds.): Korpora, Web und Datenbanken / Corpora, Web and Databases. Computergestützte Methoden in der modernen Phraseologie und Lexikographie / Computer-Based Methods in Modern Phraseology and Lexicography. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider Verlag Hohengehren [Phraseologie und Parömiologie; 25], 77-94. (more information; book review)

Konecny, Christine (2010b): "Von 'hinkenden' Stühlen, 'tanzenden' Zähnen und 'verlorenen' Verkehrsmitteln. Erfassung und Darstellung italienischer lexikalischer Kollokationen für deutschsprachige L2-Lerner (auf der Grundlage des Dizionario di base della lingua italiana - DIB)." In: Dykstra, Anne; Schoonheim, Tanneke (eds.): Proceedings of the XIV. Euralex International Congress, Leeuwarden, 6-10 July 2010. Leeuwarden: Fryske Akademy / A.F.U.K. (Algemiene Fryske Underjocht Kommisje), 1207-1221. (to the article)

Konecny, Christine (2010c): "Le collocazioni lessicali - proposta per una classificazione semantica." In: Iliescu, Maria; Siller-Runggaldier, Heidi; Danler, Paul (eds.): XXVe Congrès International de Linguistique et Philologie Romanes (= CILPR 2007), Innsbruck, 3-8 septembre 2007. Vol. III. Berlin; New York: de Gruyter, 125-134. (more information)

Konecny, Christine (2011a): "Von 'eingepflanzten' Nägeln zu 'hinuntergeschluckten' Tränen und 'jungfräulichen' DVDs. Die Konzeptualisierung von Wissen in denotativ äquivalenten italienischen und deutschen Kollokationen und deren lexikographische Repräsentation." In: Kittler, Judith; Nickenig, Annika; Siebenborn, Eva; del Valle, Victoria (eds.): Repräsentationsformen von Wissen. Beiträge zum XXVI. Forum Junge Romanistik in Bochum (26.-29. Mai 2010). München: Martin Meidenbauer [Forum Junge Romanistik; 17], 115-133. (more information)

Konecny, Christine (2011b): "Divergenze e convergenze in collocazioni lessicali italiane e tedesche." In: Lavric, Eva; Pöckl, Wolfgang; Schallhart, Florian (eds.): Comparatio delectat. Akten der VI. Internationalen Arbeitstagung zum romanisch-deutschen und innerromanischen Sprachvergleich, Innsbruck, 3.-5. September 2008. Teil 1 und 2. Frankfurt a.M. [et al.]: Lang [InnTrans / Innsbrucker Beiträge zu Sprache, Kultur und Translation; 4], 295-309. (more information)

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine; Bradl-Albrich, Martina (2012): "Creating a bilingual learner's dictionary of Italian and German collocations: strategies and methods for searching, selecting and representing collocations on the basis of a learner-oriented, semantic-conceptual approach." In: Vatvedt Fjeld, Ruth; Torjusen, Julie Matilde (eds.): Proceedings of the 15th Euralex International Congress, Oslo, 7-11 August 2012. Oslo: Department of Linguistics and Scandinavian Studies of the University of Oslo, 726-736. (to the article)

Konecny, Christine (2012a): "Wirf' mal einen Blick darauf - Dacci un po' un'occhiata! Zu interlingualen Abweichungen in italienischen und deutschen Verb-Substantiv-Kollokationen und deren Relevanz für die Translationsdidaktik und die translatologische Praxis." In: Zybatow, Lew; Petrova, Alena; Ustaszewski, Michael (eds.): Translationswissenschaft interdisziplinär: Fragen der Theorie und Didaktik / Translation Studies: Interdisciplinary Issues of Theory and Didactics. Tagungsband der 1. Internationalen Konferenz TRANSLATA "Translationswissenschaft: gestern - heute - morgen", 12.-14. Mai 2011, Innsbruck / Proceedings of the 1st International Conference TRANSLATA "Translation & Interpreting Research: Yesterday - Today - Tomorrow", May 12-14, 2011, Innsbruck. Frankfurt a.M. [et al.]: Lang [Forum Translationswissenschaft; 15], 299-306. (more information)

Konecny, Christine (2012b): "Da chiodi 'piantati' a DVD 'vergini' e lacrime 'inghiottite'. Insegnamento e rappresentazione lessicografica di collocazioni lessicali italiane per apprendenti tedescofoni (sulla base del DIB - Dizionario di base della lingua italiana)." In: Ferreri, Silvana (ed.): Lessico e Lessicologia. Atti del XLIV. Congresso Internazionale di Studi della Società di Linguistica Italiana (SLI), Viterbo, 27-29 settembre 2010. Roma: Bulzoni [Pubblicazioni della Società di Linguistica Italiana; 56], 463-477. (more information)

Konecny, Christine; Bradl-Albrich, Martina (2012): "Siehst du den 'tanzenden' Zahn? Memorisieren lexikalischer Kollokationen des Italienischen als L2-Sprache mit Hilfe einer erweiterten keyword-Methode." In: Hinger, Barbara; Unterrainer, Eva Maria; Newby, David (eds.): Sprachen lernen: Kompetenzen entwickeln - Performanzen (über)prüfen. Tagungsband der 5. Tagung der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Sprachdidaktik (ÖGSD): Innsbruck, 23.-25. September 2010. Wien: Praesens, 214-235. (more information)

Konecny, Christine (2013): “Das Projekt eines neuen italienisch-deutschen Kollokationswörterbuches und sein innovativer Beitrag zur bilingualen Lernerlexikographie.” In: Cantarini, Sibilla (ed.): Wortschatz, Wortschätze im Vergleich und Wörterbücher. Methoden, Instrumente und neue Perspektiven. Frankfurt a.M. [et al.]: Lang [Kontrastive Linguistik / Linguistica contrastiva; 3], 135-159. (more information)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013a): “Learning Italian phrasemes through their conceptualizations.” In: Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (eds.): Phraseologie im Sprachunterricht und in der Sprachendidaktik / Phraseology in language teaching and in language didactics. Maribor: Mednarodna založba Oddelka za slovanske jezike in književnosti, Filozofska fakulteta [Zora; 94], 117-136. (more Information)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2013b): "Combining Lexicography with Second-Language Didactics: The Case of the Bilingual Collocations Dictionary Kollokationen Italienisch-Deutsch." In: Karpova, Olga (eds.): Life beyond Dictionaries: Proceedings of X Anniversary School on Lexicography. Ivanovo – Florence, September 12-14, 2013. Ivanovo: Ivanovo State University, 268-271.

Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (2013): “Zum Status quo der Phraseodidaktik: Aktuelle Forschungsfragen, Desiderata und Zukunftsperspektiven.” In: Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (eds.): Phraseologie im Sprachunterricht und in der Sprachendidaktik / Phraseology in language teaching and in language didactics. Maribor: Mednarodna založba Oddelka za slovanske jezike in književnosti, Filozofska fakulteta [Zora; 94], 153-172. (more information)

Konecny, Christine; Konzett, Carmen (2013): "Wortschatzlernen als Vorbereitung auf Sprachmittlungsaufgaben: Lexemkombinationen und kontrastive Wortschatzdidaktik im mehrsprachigen Unterricht." In: Reimann, Daniel; Rössler, Andrea (eds.): Sprachmittlung im Fremdsprachenunterricht. Tübingen: Narr [Romanistische Fremdsprachenforschung und Unterrichtsentwicklung; 1], 261-280. (more information)

Konecny, Christine (2014): “Unikale Lexeme – ‘Spuren’ der Diachronie in der Synchronie? Eine Analyse anhand ausgewählter italienischer Phraseo­logismen.” In: Melchior, Luca; Göschl, Albert; Rieger, Rita; Fischer, Michaela; Voit, Andreea (eds.): Spuren.Suche (in) der Romania. Beiträge zum XXVIII. Forum Junge Romanistik in Graz (18.-21. April 2012). Frankfurt a.M. [et al.]: Lang [Forum Junge Romanistik; 19], 283-298. (more Information)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2015): “Scale ripide, mobili e a chiocciola – steile, Roll- und Wendeltreppen. Diverse categorie di combinazioni lessicali italiane del tipo ‘N + Agg o SPrep’ e i loro equivalenti tedeschi – un confronto interlinguistico.” In: Lavric, Eva; Pöckl, Wolfgang (eds.): Comparatio delectat II. Akten der VII. Internationalen Arbeitstagung zum romanisch-deutschen und innerromanischen Sprachvergleich, Innsbruck, 6.-8. September 2012. Teil 2. Frankfurt a.M. [et al.]: Lang [InnTrans / Innsbrucker Beiträge zu Sprache, Kultur und Translation; 7], 567-586. (more information)

Konecny, Christine; Autelli, Erica (2015): "Combining Lexicography with Second-Language Didactics: The Case of the Bilingual Collocations Dictionary Kollokationen Italienisch-Deutsch." In: Karpova, Olga; Kartashkova, Faina (eds.): Life beyond Dictionaries. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 185-198. (more information)

Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine (2015): "Lehren und Lernen von Kollokationen in einer zweisprachigen Klasse." In: Carpentieri, Saverio; Hosp, Eva Nora; Winkler, Siegfried (eds.): Eine Klasse - zwei Sprachen / Una classe - due lingue. Zehn Jahre bilingualer Unterricht an der Volksschule "Innere Stadt" in Innsbruck / Dieci anni di insegnamento bilingue alla scuola primaria "Innere Stadt" di Innsbruck. Innsbruck [et al.]: Studienverlag, 52-55. (more information)

[Translation:] Autelli, Erica; Konecny, Christine (2015): "Insegnare e imparare collocazioni in una classe bilingue." In: Carpentieri, Saverio; Hosp, Eva Nora; Winkler, Siegfried (eds.): Eine Klasse - zwei Sprachen / Una classe - due lingue. Zehn Jahre bilingualer Unterricht an der Volksschule "Innere Stadt" in Innsbruck / Dieci anni di insegnamento bilingue alla scuola primaria "Innere Stadt" di Innsbruck. Innsbruck [et al.]: Studienverlag, 162-164.

Konecny, Christine (in print): "Frequenz: ein zuverlässiges Kriterium zur Erschließung von fachsprachlichen Kollokationen?" In: Gautier, Laurent (ed.): Les collocations en discours spécialisés. Berlin: Franck & Timme [FFF / Forum für Fachsprachen-Forschung; 107].

 
Book introductions

Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (2013): "Einlei­tung." / “Introduction." In: Konecny, Christine; Hallsteinsdóttir, Erla; Kacjan, Brigita (eds.): Phraseologie im Sprachunterricht und in der Sprachendidaktik / Phraseology in language teaching and in language didactics. Maribor: Mednarodna založba Oddelka za slovanske jezike in književnosti, Filozofska fakulteta [Zora; 94], 7-17. (more information)

 

Diploma theses and doctoral dissertations on "Italian phraseology" submitted at the University of Innsbruck (Department of Romance Languages) (Supervisors: Univ.-Prof. Dr. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier, Univ.-Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. mult. Maria Iliescu, Univ.-Prof. Dr. Paul Danler)

(cf. research focus “Italian collocations", initiated and directed by Univ.-Prof. Dr. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier)

Albrich, Martina (2010): Dall’amore vero all’odio profondo. Collocazioni lessicali italiane contenenti sostantivi denotanti sentimenti/emozioni. Analisi semantica e implicazioni didattiche per l’insegnamento dell’italiano L2. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier]

Andrich, Birgit (2005): Tierbezeichnungen enthaltende italienische Phraseologismen. Eine syntaktisch, semantisch und kognitiv-konzeptuell ausgerichtete Untersuchung. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier]

Felderer, Patricia (2010): Le collocazioni giuridiche: il tipo V+N nella funzione dell’oggetto diretto dimostrato in base al trattato di Maastricht. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Paul Danler]

Gitterle, Cornelia (2005): Somatismen mit dem Körperteil "Hand" im Italienischen und im Deutschen. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier]

Hellweger, Daniela (2009): Le collocazioni nella lingua del calcio. Analisi sintattica e semantica delle collocazioni. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Paul Danler]

Konecny, Christine (2007): Kollokationen. Versuch einer semantisch-begrifflichen Annäherung und Klassifizierung anhand des Italienischen. 2 Vols. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (doctoral dissertation). [Supervisors: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier and Prof. Maria Iliescu]

Krimbacher, Petra (2006): Strutture tra formazione di parola, collocazione e combinazione libera: i sintagmi ‘aggettivo + sostantivo’ ossia ‘sostantivo + aggettivo’. Classificazione e implicazioni didattiche (sulla base di un confronto con forme corrispondenti in tedesco). Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier]

Rinderer, Susanne (2003): Phraseologismen aus dem Bildbereich der Musik. Ein Sprachvergleich Italienisch - Französisch. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier]

Steger, Heidi (2008): Le collocazioni lessicali: un approccio dinamico alla loro descrizione. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier]

Unterrainer, Eva Maria (2005): Bezeichnungen für Körperteile und ihre Verwendung in italienischen und deutschen Kollokationen. Ein interlingualer Vergleich aus formallinguistischer und kognitivistischer Sicht. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier]

Wenzl, Susanne (2003): Kollokationen - eine linguistische Herausforderung. Aufgezeigt am Beispiel der italienischen Kollokationen ‘Transitives Verb + Nominalsyntagma in der Funktion eines direkten Objekts’. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier]

Wertel, Iris (2010): Le parti del corpo umano come fonte di espressioni idiomatiche. Analisi contrastiva di espressioni idiomatiche italiane e tedesche. Le strategie dell'acquisizione del significato straniero e le possibilità di insegnamento delle espressioni idiomatiche. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Paul Danler]

Zach, Maria (2011): L'appetito viene mangiando. Modi di dire contenenti nomi di alimenti e bevande. Un confronto grammaticale-semantico. Innsbruck: University of Innsbruck (diploma thesis). [Supervisor: Prof. Heidi Siller-Runggaldier]